Depression Anxiety Stress Scales – Long Form (DASS-42)


Please read each statement and press a response that indicates how much the statement applied to you over the past week. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any statement.

Did not apply to me at all Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time Applied to me very much, or most of the time
1 I found myself getting upset by quite trivial things 0 1 2 3
2 I was aware of dryness of my mouth 0 1 2 3
3 I couldn’t seem to experience any positive feeling at all 0 1 2 3
I experienced breathing difficulty (eg,
4 excessively rapid breathing,

breathlessness in the absence of

0 1 2 3
physical exertion)
5 I just couldn’t seem to get going 0 1 2 3
6 I tended to over-react to situations 0 1 2 3
7 I had a feeling of shakiness (eg, legs going to give way) 0 1 2 3
8 I found it difficult to relax 0 1 2 3
I found myself in situations that
9 made me so anxious I was most relieved when they ended 0 1 2 3
10 I felt that I had nothing to look forward to 0 1 2 3
11 I found myself getting upset rather easily 0 1 2 3
12 I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy 0 1 2 3
13 I felt sad and depressed 0 1 2 3
Did not apply to me at all Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time Applied to me very much, or most of the time
14 I found myself getting impatient when I was delayed in any way (eg, lifts, traffic lights, being kept waiting) 0 1 2 3
15 I had a feeling of faintness 0 1 2 3
16 I felt that I had lost interest in just about everything 0 1 2 3
17 I felt I wasn’t worth much as a person 0 1 2 3
18 I felt that I was rather touchy 0 1 2 3
19 I perspired noticeably (eg, hands sweaty) in the absence of high temperatures or physical exertion 0 1 2 3
20 I felt scared without any good reason 0 1 2 3
21 I felt that life wasn’t worthwhile 0 1 2 3
22 I found it hard to wind down 0 1 2 3
23 I had difficulty in swallowing 0 1 2 3
24 I couldn’t seem to get any enjoyment out of the things I did 0 1 2 3
I was aware of the action of my heart in
25 the absence of physical exertion (eg,

sense of heart rate increase, heart

0 1 2 3
missing a beat)
26 I felt down-hearted and blue 0 1 2 3
27 I found that I was very irritable 0 1 2 3
28 I felt I was close to panic 0 1 2 3
29 I found it hard to calm down after something upset me 0 1 2 3
I feared that I would be “thrown”
30 by some trivial but unfamiliar task 0 1 2 3
Did not apply to me at all Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time Applied to me very much, or most of the time
31 I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything 0 1 2 3
32 I found it difficult to tolerate interruptions to what I was doing 0 1 2 3
33 I was in a state of nervous tension 0 1 2 3
34 I felt I was pretty worthless 0 1 2 3
I was intolerant of anything that
35 kept me from getting on with what I was doing 0 1 2 3
36 I felt terrified 0 1 2 3
37 I could see nothing in the future to be hopeful about 0 1 2 3
38 I felt that life was meaningless 0 1 2 3
39 I found myself getting agitated 0 1 2 3
I was worried about situations in
40 which I might panic and make a fool of myself 0 1 2 3
41 I experienced trembling (eg, in the hands) 0 1 2 3
42 I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things 0 1 2 3


The DASS-42 is a 42 item self-report scale designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The principal value of the DASS in a clinical setting is to clarify the locus of emotional disturbance, as part of the broader task of clinical assessment. The essential function of the DASS is to assess the severity of the core symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. As the scales of the DASS have been shown to have high internal consistency and to yield meaningful discriminations in a variety of settings, the scales should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure current state or change in state over time (e.g., in the course of treatment)

Validity and Reliability

The test was developed using a sample of responses from the comparison of 504 sets of results from a trial by students, taken from a larger sample of 950 first year university student responses. The test was then normed on a sample of 1044 males and 1870 females aged between 17 and 69 years, across participants of varying backgrounds, including university students, nurses in training and blue and white collared employees of a major airline, bank, railway workshop and naval dockyard. The scores were subsequently checked for validity against outpatient groups including patients suffering from anxiety and depressive disorders, insomniacs, myocardial infarction patients, as well as patients undergoing treatment for sexual, menopausal and depressive disorders. While the test was not normed against samples younger than 17, due to the simplicity of language, there has been no compelling evidence against the use of the scales for comparison against children as young as 12. The reliability scores of the scales in terms of Cronbach’s alpha scores rate the Depression scale at 0.91, the Anxiety scale at 0.84 and the Stress scale at 0.90 in the normative sample. The means and standard deviations for each scale are 6.34 and 6.97 for depression, 4.7 and 4.91 for anxiety and 10.11 and 7.91 for stress, respectively. The mean scores in the normative sample did vary slightly between genders as well as varying by age, though the threshold scores for classifications do not change by these variations. The Depression and Stress scales meet the standard threshold requirement of 0.9 for research, however, the Anxiety scale still meets the 0.7 threshold for clinical applications, and is still close to the 0.9 required for research.


The DASS is based on a dimensional rather than a categorical conception of psychological disorder. The assumption on which the DASS development was based (and which was confirmed by the research data) is that the differences between the depression, the anxiety, and the stress experienced by normal subjects and the clinically disturbed, are essentially differences of degree. The DASS therefore has no direct implications for the allocation of patients to discrete diagnostic categories postulated in classificatory systems such as the DSM and ICD. However, recommended cutoffs for conventional severity labels (normal, moderate, severe) are given in the DASS Manual. For full interpretive information please purchase the DASS manual at A raw score for the three subscales and the total raw score are given as output. Additionally, for each of the three subscales percentiles based on a community sample (n = 2914) are computed.


Lovibond, S.H.; Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation (Available from The Psychology Foundation, Room 1005 Mathews Building, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia

Number Of Questions