Irrational Belief

Irrational Belief Scales Based on the Ellis Model
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Items/ Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Belief Scale (BS)/No/ M.S. Belief Scale‚ MSBS‚ Irrational Belief Scale‚ IBS
Malouff & Schutte‚ 1986
20 items/ 1 factor
5-point Likert
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Depression‚ neuroticism.
“It is terrible when things do not go the way I would like.”
“Life should be easier than it is.”
“To be happy‚ I must maintain the approval of all the persons I consider significant.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Items/
Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Camatta & Na-goshi Scale/No/ NA
Camatta & Nagoshi‚ 1995
10 items/ Not re-ported
Not re-ported
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Research; Predictor of alcohol use problems.
“It is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way I’d like them to be.”
“I have little or no ability to control the sorrows and disturbances in my life.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Child and Adolescent scale of Irrationality (CASI)/
Short form (CASI- Revised)/ NA
Bernard & Laws‚ 1987
44 items/ 6 sub-scales
5-point Likert
Journal of Cognitive PsychotherapyAn International Quarterly
Emotional problems; Anxiety‚ depression in younger population.
“I can’t stand ha‎ving to behave well and follow rules.”
“It’s really awful to have lots of homework to do.”
“Teachers should really act fairly all the time.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
Common Beliefs Survey-III (CBS-III)/ Short form Ex-ists (CBS-II SF)/ NA
Bessai‚ 1977
54 items/ 9 sub-scales
5-point Likert
Unpublished; contact scale author for a copy
Clinical instrument to distinguish clients from non-clients (clinical population not identified); Anxiety‚ depression.
“There is a right way to do every-thing.”
“Being approved by others is very important.”
“A person can’t help feeling guilty about wrongdoings.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Original Purpose
Sample Items
Ellis Emotional Efficiency Inventory (EEEI)/ No/NA
Ellis‚ 1992
60 items/ 3 factors
5-point Likert
Questionnaire: The elegant solution to emotional and behavioral problems
Designed to measure an individual’s ability to cope with emotional dysfunction associated with awful zing‚ ego-disturbance and discomfort disturbance.
“I often pity myself when people treat me unfairly.”
“I am quite pessimistic and often see things in a bad or hopeless light.”
“I often feel insulted and embarrassed.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
Evaluative Beliefs Scale (EBS)/No/ NA
Chadwick‚ Trower‚ & Dagnan‚ 1999
18 items/
3 factors
5-point Likert
Cognitive Therapy and Research
Research; Nature of evaluative beliefs in individuals with anger disorders.
“I am a total failure.”
“People think I’m a bad person.”
“Other people are worthless.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS)/No/Attitudes Belief Scale 2‚ ABS 2‚ A&B II‚ ABS II
DiGiuse- ppe‚ Leaf‚ Exner‚ & Robin‚ 1988
72 items/7 sub-scales
5-point Likert
Unpublished; contact scale authors for a copy
Research; To unravel the dynamics of behavior disorders‚ the irrational beliefs behind them.
“I can’t stand hassles in my life.”
“I cannot tolerate not doing well at important tasks and it is unbearable to fail.”
“I must be liked by important people‚ and I will not accept not being liked by them.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
Idea Inventory/No/NA
Kassinove‚ Crisci‚ & Tiegerm- an‚ 1977
33items/ 4 factors
3-point Likert
Journal of Community Psychology
To measure rationality across age (i.e.‚ developmental trends in rationality).
“I feel like I’m a stupid person when I don’t do as well as my friends.”
“I constantly worry about dangerous accidents occurring.”
“I get upset and angry then my plans go wrong.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
Author(s)
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Sample Items
Irrational Beliefs Inventory (IBI)/No/NA
Koopmans‚ Sanderm- an‚ Timm- erman & Emmelka- mp‚ 1994
50 items/
5 sub-scales
5-point Likert
European Journal of Psychological Assessment
Research; Role of irrational beliefs in depression. Also phobias‚ OCD‚ pro-crastination‚ para-normal beliefs.
“I hate to fail at anything.”
“I often get excited or upset when things go wrong.”
“I avoid facing my problems.
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Irrational Beliefs Survey (IBS)/No/Irrational Beliefs Scale
Watson‚ Vassar‚ Plemel‚ Herder‚ Manifold‚ & Ander-son‚ 1990
11 items/
4 factors
5-point Likert
Journal of Clinical Psychology
Research instrument; Designed to opera-tionalize Ellisonian irrational beliefs.
“I am often upset over other people’s problems.”
“It is easier to avoid some of life’s difficulties and responsibilities than it is to face them.”
“I do not believe I am worthwhile unless I am thoroughly competent at everything I do.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Original Purpose
Sample Items
irrational Beliefs Test (IBT)/IBT Revised (Woods‚ 1992)/NA
Jones‚ 1968
100 items/
8 factors
5-point Likert
Unpublished; contact scale author for a copy
Research; To identify the role of irrational beliefs in depression‚ assertiveness‚ locus of control‚ self-esteem‚ social skills deficits‚ alcoholism.
“I dislike for others to make my decisions for me.”
“It is annoying but not upsetting to be criticized.”
“I find it hard to go against what others think.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI)/No/NA
Flett‚ Hew-itt‚ Blank-stein & Gray‚ 1998
25 items/
1 factor
5-point Likert
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
A measure of automatic thoughts that reflect personality factors associated with vulnerability to psychological disorders; specifically anxiety‚ depression.
“Why can’t I be perfect?”
“Things are seldom ideal.”
“I am too much of a perfectionist.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Rational Behavior Inventory (RBI)/No/NA
Shorkey & Whiteman‚ 1977
38 items/
11 factors
5-point Likert
Educational and Psycho-logical Measurement
Clinical instrument for assessment‚ treatment planning‚ & evaluation of clients‚ by therapists who used RET.
“I find that my occupation and social life tend to make me unhappy.”
“I usually try to avoid chores which I dislike doing.”
“I worry about little things.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
Situational Self-Statement and Affective State Inventory (SSSASI)/No/NA
Harrell‚ Cham-bless‚ & Calhoun‚ 1981
5 items/
10 factors
5-point Likert
Cognitive Therapy and Research
Useful in assessing dimensions important to REBT; that certain classes of maladaptive cognitions are linked to emotional distress (anxiety‚ depression). There is also a SSSASI- thoughts measure.
In response to situations;
“I’ve really done a lousy job. I’ve let everybody down. My work just hasn’t been any good. I don’t think I can do any better.”
“I wish I had done better. I still think my work is good and with a little more persistence‚ I will do better in the next contest.”
“I guess it really is difficult for people to straighten things out some-times. I hope when we see each other again we’ll be able to talk without so much conflict.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Original Purpose
Sample Items
Smith Irrational Beliefs Inventory (SIBI)/No/NA
Smith‚ 2002
24 items/
6 factors
4-point Likert
Stress management: A comprehensive handbook of techniques and strategies
Research instrument; Attempts to address the issue of the factor structure of irrational belief items “to identify a core set of replicable and meaningful irrational belief factors”.
“I always need help on important problems.”
“Things didn’t turn out like I wanted; this is a disaster.”
“I’m just a failure.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
Survey of Personal Beliefs (SPB)/No/NA
Demaria‚ Kassinove‚ & Dill‚ 1989
50 items/
5 factors
6-point Likert
Journal of Personality Assessment
Identifying irrational beliefs in clinical & university populations. Expression of anger‚ hopelessness‚ anxiety‚ depression‚ all due to the RET theoretical emphasis on irrational thinking.
“There are some things in life that I just can’t stand.”
“There are times when awful things happen.”
“I clearly should not make some of the mistakes I make.”
Irrational Belief Scales Based on the Beck Model
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
Author(s)
Number of Items/
Number of Fators or Sub-scales
Rating Scale
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Original Purpose
Sample Items
Automatic Thoughts Ques-tionnaire-30 (ATQ-30)/Companion piece ATQ-N/ NA
Hollon & Kendall‚ 1980
30 items/
4 factors
5-point Likert
Cognitive Therapy and Research
Designed to measure automatic thoughts associated with depression.
“I can’t finish anything.”
“I’m a loser.”
“My life is a mess.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Cognition Checklist (CCL)/No/NA
Beck‚ Brown‚ Steer‚ Eidelson‚ & Riskind‚ 1987
26 items/
2 factors
5-point Likert
Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Designed to measure the content-specificity hypothesis of the cognitive model by measuring the frequency of automatic thoughts relevant to anxiety and depression.
“I will never overcome my problems.”
“I’m a social failure.”
“People will laugh at me.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Cognitive Triad Inventory (CTI)/No/NA
Beckham‚ Leber‚ Watkins‚ Boyer‚ & Cook‚ 1986
36 items/
6 factors
7-point Likert
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Role of the cognitive triad in the development and maintenance of depression.
“I can’t do anything right.”
“There is no reason for me to be hopeful about my future.”
“My family doesn’t care what hap-pens to me.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Items/
Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Original Purpose
Sample Items
Crandell Cogni-tions Inventory (CCI)/No/NA
Crandell & Cham-bless‚ 1986
45 items/
4 factors
5-point Likert
Behaviour Research and Therapy
A measure of frequency of depressive thoughts; designed to measure self-referent statements associated with depression.
“Everything I do is a failure.”
“I’ll never do as well as others.”
“Nothing seems exciting anymore.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS)/Two parallel 40-item forms DAS-A‚ DAS-B/NA
Weissman & Beck‚ 1978
100 items/
9 factors
7-point Likert
Unpublished; contact scale authors for copy
Designed to measure Depressiongenic schemas constituting predispositions to depression.
“Being alone leads to unhappiness.”
“If I ask a question‚ it makes me look stupid.”
“I am nothing if a person I love doesn’t love me.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Sample Items
General Cognitive Error Questionnaire (CEQ)/No/NA
LeFebvre‚ 1981
24 vi-gnettes/
NA
5-point Likert
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Measures cognitive errors linked to depression; Also looked at levels of depression in bulimia.
“Last time you went skiing‚ you took a hard fall and got shook up. You’re supposed to go skiing this weekend but think‚ ‘I’ll probably fall and break my leg and there will be no one to help me.’”
“You have been working for six months as a car salesperson. You had never been a salesperson before and were just fired because you were not meeting your quotas. You thought‚ ‘Why try to get another job‚ I’ll just get fired. ’”
“Last night your spouse said s/he thought you should have a serious discussion about sex. You think to yourself‚ ‘S/he hates the way we make love.’”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Personality Belief Questionnaire (PBQ)/PBQ-Short Form/NA
Beck & Beck‚ 1991
126 items/
9 sub-scales
5-point Likert
Unpublished; contact scale authors for a copy
Examines role of irrational beliefs in personality disorders: Avoidant‚ obsessive-compulsive‚ dependent‚ narcissistic‚ paranoid‚ and borderline.
“I am socially inept and socially undesirable in work or social situations.”
“Unpleasant feelings will escalate and get out of control.”
“I am helpless when I’m left on my own.”
Irrational Belief Scales Not Linked to Either the Ellis or Beck Model
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
Author(s)
Number of Items/
Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Original Purpose
Sample Items
Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE)/No/NA
Watson & Friend‚ 1969
30 items/2 factors
True/ False
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Assess degree of apprehension at the prospect of being evaluated negatively.
“I often worry that I will say or do wrong things.”
“I am frequently afraid of other people noticing my shortcomings.”
“I worry about what kind of impression I make on people.”
Name of Scale/Other Forms/Also Known As
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Number of Fators or Sub-scales
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Sample Items
Penn State Worry Scale/ No/NA
Meyer‚ Miller‚ Metzger‚ & Borkovec‚ 1990
16 items/1 factor
5-point Likert
Behavior Research and Therapy
Identify the role of worry in anxiety disorders
“I worry all the time.”
“My worries overwhelm me.”
“Once I start worrying‚ I can’t stop.”
K. Robert Bridges*‚ Rich‎ard J. Harnish

Role of irrational beliefs in depression and anxiety: a review K. R. Bridges et al. / HEALTH Vol.2‚ No.8‚ 862-877 (2010)

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Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH