Table of Contents
One of the central concepts in understanding outgroup attitudes and intergroup relations is ethnocentrism. Sumner (1906) defined ethnocentrism as “the technical name for this view of things in which one’s own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it” (p. 13). Sumner (1906) argued that ethnocentrism nourished a group’s pride and vanity while looking on outsiders, or outgroups, with contempt. Ethnocentrism is now recognized as a universal phenomenon experienced in all cultures. The Ethnocentricm Scale measures this concept.
Reliability of the scale determined by Cronbach’s alpha, was .92. Full description available in Neuliep, J. W. (2002). Assessing the Reliability and Validity of the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale, Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 31, 201-215.
Author of Tool:
Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C.
Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C.(1997).The development of a U. S. and generalized ethnocentrism scale. Communication Research Reports, 14, 385-398.
Primary use / Purpose:
Measures the phenomenon of ethinocentricm in groups.
This is the Revised Ethnocentrism Scale. Of the 22 items, 15 are scored. The other seven are included to balance the number of positively and negatively worded items. You can expect an alpha reliability estimate in the range of .80 and .90 in most cases. For validity information on this scale see: Neuliep, J. W. (2002).
Below are items that relate to the cultures of different parts of the world. Work quickly and record your first reaction to each item. There are no right or wrong answers. Please indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each item using the following five-point scale:
Strongly Disagree = 1; Disagree = 1; Neutral = 3; Agree = 4; Strongly Agree = 5;
- Most other cultures are backward compared to my
- My culture should be the role model for other
- People from other cultures act strange when they come to my
- Lifestyles in other cultures are just as valid as those in my
- Other cultures should try to be more like my
- I am not interested in the values and customs of other
- People in my culture could learn a lot from people in other
- Most people from other cultures just don't know what's good for
- I respect the values and customs of other
- Other cultures are smart to look up to our
- Most people would be happier if they lived like people in my
- I have many friends from different
- People in my culture have just about the best lifestyles of
- Lifestyles in other cultures are not as valid as those in my
- I am very interested in the values and customs of other
- I apply my values when judging people who are
- I see people who are similar to me as
- I do not cooperate with people who are
- Most people in my culture just don't know what is good for
- I do not trust people who are
- I dislike interacting with people from different
- I have little respect for the values and customs of other
Recode questions 4, 7, & 9 with the following format:
Drop questions 3, 6, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19
After you have recoded the previous questions, add all of the responses to the remaining 15 items together to get your composite ethnocentrism score.