1. The problems of taking care of a [baby/child] are easy to solve once you know how your actions affect your [baby/child]‚ an understanding I have acquired.
2. Even though being a parent could be rewarding‚ I am frustrated now while my child is at his/her present age.
3. I go to bed the same way I wake up in the morning—feeling I have not accomplished a whole lot.
4. I do not know what it is‚ but sometimes when I’m supposed to be in control‚ I feel more like the one being manipulated.
5. My [mother/father] was better prepared to be a good [mother/father] than I am.
6. I would make a fi ne model for a new [mother/father] to follow in order to learn what she would need to know in order to be a good parent.
7. Being a parent is manageable‚ and any problems are easily solved.
8. A difficult problem in being a parent is not knowing whether you’re doing a good job or a bad one.
9. Sometimes I feel like I’m not getting anything done.
10.I meet my own personal expectations for expertise in caring for my [baby/child].
11.If anyone can find the answer to what is troubling my [baby/child]‚ I am the one.
12.My talents and interests are in other areas‚ not in being a parent.
13.Considering how long I’ve been a mother‚ I feel thoroughly familiar with this role.
14.If being a [mother/father] of [an infant/a child] were only more interesting‚ I would be motivated to do a better job as a parent.
15.I honestly believe I have all the skills necessary to be a good mother to my [baby/child].
16.Being a parent makes me tense and anxious.
17.Being a good [mother/father] is a reward in itself.
Items 2‚ 3‚ 4‚ 5‚ 8‚ 9‚ 12‚ 14‚ and 16 on the PSOC are reverse coded.
Satisfaction (defined as the person’s liking of the parenting role)‚ and Efficacy (defined as the person’s perceived competence in the parenting role)
6= Strongly Agree‚ 5= Somewhat Agree‚ 4= Agree‚ 3= Disagree‚ 2= Somewhat Disagree‚ 1= Strongly Disagree
Gibaud-Wallston‚ J. (1978‚ July). Self-esteem and situational stress: Factors related to sense of competence in new parents. Dissertation Abstracts International‚ 39(1-B).
Gibaud-Wallston‚ J.‚ & Wandersman‚ L.P. (1978‚ August). Development and utility of the Parenting Sense of CompetenceScale. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association‚ Toronto‚ Canada.
Johnston‚ C.‚ & Mash‚ E.J. (1989). A measures of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology‚ 18‚167-175
Ohan‚ J. L.‚ Leung‚ D. W.‚ Johnston‚ C. (2000). The Parenting Sense of Competence Scale: Evidence of a Stable Factor Structure and Validity. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science‚ Vol 32(4)‚ 251-261.
Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman‚ 1978; Johnston & Mash‚ 1989. Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. In: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds). Tools for strengths-based assessment and evaluation‚ New York‚ NY: Springer‚ pp. 433-435. (2013). Google Scholar