Parent Experiences of Racial Socialization (PERS)
Stevenson‚ 1999‚ 2002
1. American society is fair toward Black people.
2. Black children will feel better about themselves if they go to a school with mostly white children.
3. Families who go to a church or mosque will be close and stay together.
4. Black slavery is important never to forget.
5. Relatives can help Black parents raise their children.
6. Religion is an important part of a person’s life.
7. Racism and discrimination are the hardest things a Black child has to face.
8. having large families can help many Black families survive life struggles.
9. You should be proud to be Black.
10.All races are equal.
11.If you work hard then you can overcome barriers in life.
12.A belief in God can help a person deal with tough life struggles.
13.Black children will learn more if they go to a mostly white school.
14.Knowing your African heritage is important for your survival.
15.Racism is real and you have to understand it or it will hurt you.
16.You are connected to a history that goes back to African royalty.
17.Too much talk about racism will keep you from reaching your goals in life.
18.Schools should be required to teach all children about Black history.
19.Depending on religion and God will help you live a good life.
20.Families who talk openly about religion or God will help each other to grow.
21.Teachers can help Black children grow by showing signs of Black culture in the classroom.
22.Only people who are blood-related to you should be called your “Family.”
23.Getting a good education is still the best way for you to get ahead.
24.”Don’t forget who your people are because you may need them someday.”
25.Spiritual battles that people fight are more important than the physical battles.
26.You should know about Black history so that you will be a better person.
27.”Train up a child in the way he should go‚ and he will not turn away from it.”
28.You have to work twice as hard as whites in order to get ahead in this world.
29.Whites make it hard for people to get ahead in this world.
30.Be proud of who you are.
31.Going to a Black school will help Black children feel better about themselves.
32.You need to learn how to live in a White world and a Black world.
33.Never be ashamed of your color.
34.Whites have more opportunities than Blacks.
35.A Black child or teenager will be harassed just because s/he is Black.
36.More job opportunities would be open to African Americans if people were not racist.
37.Black children should be taught early that God can protect them from racial hatred.
38.Blacks don’t always have the same opportunities as whites.
39.Black children don’t have to know about Africa in order to survive life in America.
40.Racism is not as bad today as it used to be before the 1960’s.
Cultural coping with antagonism (CCA)‚ cultural pride reinforcement (CPR)‚ cultural appreciation of legacy (CAL)‚ cultural alertness to discrimination (CAD)‚ and cultural endorsement of the mainstream (CEM) (Thomas et al‚ 2013)
Cultural Survival‚ Spiritual Coping‚ Preparation for Bias‚ and Pride Development (Friend‚ 2009)
Religion and spirituality‚ Alertness to discrimination‚ Mainstream‚ Cultural pride and coping (Thomas et al‚ 2013)
Cronbach’s alpha of .88
1 = never‚ 2= a few times‚ 3= a lot of the time
Stevenson‚ H. (1999). Parents experience of racial socialization. Unpublished Measure‚ University of Pennsylvania‚ Graduate School of Education‚ Philadelphia.
Stevenson‚ H.‚ Reed‚ J. & Bodison‚ P. (1996). Kinship social support and adolescent racial socialization beliefs: Extending the self to family. Journal of Black Psychology‚ 22‚ 4‚ 498-508.
Stevenson‚ H.‚ Cameron‚ R.‚ Herrero-Taylor‚ T. & Davis‚ G. (2002). Development of the teenager experience of racial socialization scale: Correlates of race-related socialization frequency from the perspective of Black youth. Journal of Black Psychology‚ 28‚ 2‚ 84-106.
Stevenson‚ H. C. (2006). Development and Scoring of the Racial Socialization Belief and Experience Scales for Adolescents and Parents. Unpublished Manuscript: University ofPennsylvania.
Friend‚ Christian A. (2009). The Influences of Parental Racial Socialization on the Academic Achievement of African American Children: A Cultural-Ecological Approach. University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Doctoral dissertation.
Thomas‚ A. J.‚ Blackmon‚ S.‚ Speight‚ S. L.‚ et al‚ (2013) .Factor Analysis of the Parent Experience of Racial Socialization Scale. Journal of Black Psychology‚ 40(3). published online http://help-llc.org/images/pdfs/2.pdf . DOI: 10.1177/0095798413483558
Cole‚ Nathasha. (2014). The Effects of Racial Socialization and Parent-Child Relationship Quality on Emerging Adult Reports of Racial Discrimination to Parents. Virginia Commonwealth University. master of Science thesis.