Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization (TERS)
Stevenson et al‚ 1996‚ 2002
1. American society is fair toward Black people.
2. Black children will feel better about themselves if they go to a school with mostly white children.
3. Families who go to a church or mosque will be close and stay together.
4. Black slavery is important never to forget.
5. Relatives can help Black parents raise their children.
6. Religion is an important part of a person's life.
7. Racism and discrimination are the hardest things a Black child has to face.
8. having large families can help many Black families survive life struggles.
9. You should be proud to be Black.
10.All races are equal.
11.If you work hard then you can overcome barriers in life.
12.A belief in God can help a person deal with tough life struggles.
13.Black children will learn more if they go to a mostly white school.
14.Knowing your African heritage is important for your survival.
15.Racism is real‚ and you have to understand it or it will hurt you.
16.You are connected to a history that goes back to African royalty.
17.Too much talk about racism will keep you from reaching your goals in life.
18.Schools should be required to teach all children about Black history.
19.Depending on religion and God will help you live a good life.
20.Families who talk openly about religion or God will help each other to grow.
21.Teachers can help Black children grow by showing signs of Black culture in the classroom.
22.Only people who are blood-related to you should be called your "Family".
23.Getting a good education is still the best way for you to get ahead.
24."Don't forget who your people are because you may need them someday."
25.Spiritual battles that people fight are more important than the physical battles.
26.You should know about Black history so that you will be a better person.
27."Train up a child in the way he should go‚ and he will not turn away from it."
28.You have to work twice as hard as whites in order to get ahead in this world.
29.Whites make it hard for people to get ahead in this world.
30.Be proud of who you are.
31.Going to a Black school will help Black children feel better about themselves.
32.You need to learn how to live in a White world and a Black world.
33.Never be ashamed of your color.
34.Whites have more opportunities than Blacks.
35.A Black child or teenager will be harassed just because s/he is Black.
36.More job opportunities would be open to African Americans if people were not racist.
37.Black children should be taught early that God can protect them from racial hatred.
38.Blacks don't always have the same opportunities as whites.
39.Black children don‘t have to know about Africa in order to survive life in America.
40.Racism is not as bad today as it used to be before the 1960‘s.
Cultural Coping with Antagonism (CCA)‚ Cultural Pride Reinforcement (CPR)‚ Cultural Appreciation of Legacy (CAL)‚ Cultural Alertness to Discrimination (CAD)‚ Cultural Endorsement of the Mainstream (CEM)
The Composite factors may be derived‚ Proactive Racial Socialization Experience (PRSE) and Adaptive Racial Socialization Experience (ARSE).
CCA (.85-.89)‚ CPR (.81-.83)‚ CLA (0.73-000.77)‚ CAD (.76-0.81)‚ and CEM (.64-.71)‚ PRSE (.92-.94)‚ ARSE (.93-.94)
1 = never‚ 2= A few times‚ 3= Lot of times
Cultural Coping with Antagonism (3‚5‚6‚8‚18‚19‚20‚21‚25‚26‚27‚31‚37)‚ Cultural Pride Reinforcement (9‚11‚12‚23‚24‚30‚32‚33‚40)‚ Cultural Appreciation of Legacy (4‚7‚14‚15‚ and 16)‚ Cultural Alertness to Discrimination (28‚29‚34‚35‚36‚38)‚ Cultural Endorsement of the Mainstream (1‚2‚13‚17‚22‚ and 39)
Proactive Racial Socialization Experience (PRSE) is a summative construct comprised of the first four constructs‚ and Adaptive Racial Socialization Experience (ARSE) reflects the total scale.
Stevenson‚ H.C. (1994). Racial socialization in African American families: The art of balancing intolerance and survival. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families‚ 2‚ 190-198.
Stevenson‚ H.C. (1994). Validation of the Scale of Racial Socialization for African American Adolescents: Steps toward multidimensionality. Journal of Black Psychology‚ 20‚ 445-468.
Stevenson‚ H.C.‚ Reed‚ J.‚ & Bodison‚ P. (1996). Kinship social support and adolescent racial socialization beliefs: Extending the self to family. Journal of Black Psychology‚ 22‚ 498-508.
Stevenson‚ H.C.‚ Cameron‚ R.‚ Herrero-Taylor‚ T.‚ & Davis‚ G. Y. (2001). Development of the Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization Scale: Correlates of race-related socialization frequency from the perspective of Black youth. Unpublished Manuscript.
Stevenson‚ H.C.‚ Cameron‚ R.‚ Herrero-Taylor‚ T.‚ Davis‚ G. (2002.). Development of the teenager experience of racial socialization scale: Correlates of race related socialization frequency from the perspective of Black youth. Journal of Black Psychology‚ 28(2)‚ 84-106.