Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory (EMGI)

Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory (EMGI)
Exercise Motivations Inventory – 2 (EMI-2)
Markland and Hardy‚ 1993  & Markland and Ingledew‚ 1997 & Ingledew‚ Markland and Strömmer‚ 2013
 
Motives Section
Personally‚ I exercise (or might exercise)…
1.    To stay slim
2.    To avoid ill-health
3.    Because it makes me feel good
4.    To help me look younger
5.    To show my worth to others
6.    To give me space to think
7.    To have a healthy body
8.    To build up my strength
9.    Because I enjoy the feeling of exerting myself
10.To spend time with friends
11.Because my doctor advised me to exercise
12.Because I like trying to win in physical activities
13.To stay/become more agile
14.To give me goals to work towards
15.To lose weight        
16.To prevent health problems
17.Because I find exercise invigorating
18.To have a good body
19.To compare my abilities with other peoples’
20.Because it helps to reduce tension
21.Because I want to maintain good health
22.To increase my endurance
23.Because I find exercising satisfying in and of itself
24.To enjoy the social aspects of exercising
25.To help prevent an illness that runs in my family
26.Because I enjoy competing
27.To maintain flexibility
28.To give me personal challenges to face
29.To help control my weight
30.To avoid heart disease
31.To rech‎arge my batteries
32.To improve my appearance
33.To gain recognition for my accomplishments
34.To help manage stress
35.To feel more healthy
36.To get stronger
37.For enjoyment of the experience of exercising
38.To have fun being active with other people
39.To help recover from an illness/injury
40.Because I enjoy physical competition
41.To stay/become flexible
42.To develop personal skills
43.Because exercise helps me to burn calories
44.To look more attractive
45.To accomplish things that others are incapable of
46.To release tension
47.To develop my muscles
48.Because I feel at my best when exercising
49.To make new friends
50.Because I find physical activities fun‚ especially when competition is involved
51.To measure myself against personal standards
Gains Section
 
My personal experience of exercise has been that…
1.    I have lost weight through exercising
2.    I have found the experience of exercising enjoyable
3.    I have been able to develop personal skills
4.    I have found exercising satisfying in and of itself
5.    I have stayed/become more agile through exercise
6.    It has allowed me to accomplish things that others are incapable of
7.    It has helped me to maintain flexibility
8.    I have found physical activities fun‚ especially when competition was involved
9.    I have made new friends through exercise
10.It has helped me to have a better body
11.It has helped me to get stronger
12.It has enabled me to stay slim
13.It has given me personal challenges to face
14.I have felt at my best when exercising
15.It has reduced my risk of heart disease
16.It has helped me to reduce tension
17.I have followed my doctor’s advice by exercising
18.I have been able to enjoy competing
19.It has helped me to have a healthy body
20.I have been able to develop my muscles
21.I have been able to manage stress through exercising
22.I have increased my endurance
23.I have been able to stay/become flexible
24.I have been able to avoid ill-health
25.It has allowed me to compare my abilities with other peoples’
26.It has given me space to think
27.It has allowed me to spend time with friends
28.It has helped me to look more attractive
29.It has given me goals to work towards
30.I have built up my strength through exercising
31.It has allowed me to measure myself against personal standards
32.I have been able to enjoy physical competition
33.It has helped me to maintain good health
34.I have been able to prevent health problems
35.I have liked trying to win in physical activities
36.It has helped control my weight
37.It has helped me to rech‎arge my batteries
38.It has helped me to recover from an illness/injury
39.I have felt more healthy
40.I have had fun being active with other people
41.I have gained recognition for my accomplishments
42.I have been able to improve my appearance
43.I have been able to show my worth to others
44.I have released tension by exercising
45.I have felt good through exercising
46.It has helped me to burn calories
47.I have enjoyed the feeling of exerting myself
48.It has helped me to look younger
49.It has helped reduce the risk of an illness that runs in my family
50.I have found exercise invigorating
51.I have enjoyed the social aspects of exercising 
Motives Section: Subscales (alpha)
Stress management (0.916)‚ Revitalization (0.832)‚ Enjoyment (0.899)‚ Challenge (0.857)‚ Social recognition (0.878)‚ Affiliation (0.91)‚ Competition (0.954)‚ Health pressures (0.686)‚ Ill-health avoidance (0.901)‚ Positive health (0.877)‚ Weight management (0.914)‚ Appearance (0.859)‚ Strength (0.864)‚ and Nimbleness (0.899)
 
0 = “Not at all true for me” to 4 = “Very true for me”
Motives Section: Stress management (items 6‚ 20‚ 34‚ 46)‚ Revitalization (items 3‚ 17‚ 31)‚ Enjoyment (items 9‚ 23‚ 37‚ 48)‚ Challenge (items 14‚ 28‚ 42‚ 51)‚ Social recognition (items 5‚ 19‚ 33‚ 45)‚ Affiliation (items 10‚ 24‚ 38‚ 49)‚ Competition (items 12‚ 26‚ 40‚ 50)‚ Health pressures (items 11‚ 25‚ 39)‚ Ill-health avoidance (items 2‚ 16‚ 30)‚ Positive health (items 7‚ 21‚ 35)‚ Weight management (items 1‚ 15‚ 29‚ 43)‚ Appearance (items 4‚ 18‚ 32‚ 44)‚ Strength (items 8‚ 22‚ 36‚ 47)‚ and Nimbleness (items 13‚ 27‚ 41)
 
 
 

Ingledew‚ D.K.‚ Hardy‚ L. and de Sousa‚ K. (1995). Body shape dissatisfaction and exercise motivations. Journal of Sports Sciences‚ 13‚ 60. abstract

 

Ingledew‚ D.K. & Markland‚ D. (2008). The role of motives in exercise participation. Psychology and Health‚ 23‚ 807-828. abstract full text (pdf) For personal use only

 

Ingledew‚ D.K.‚ Markland‚ D.‚ & Ferguson‚ E. (2009). Three levels of exercise motivation. Applied Psychology: Health and Wellbeing‚ 1‚ 336-355. abstract full text (pdf) For personal use only

 

Ingledew‚ D.K.I.‚ Markland‚ D. and Medley‚ A. (1998). Exercise motives and Stages of Change.Journal of Health Psychology‚ 3‚ 477-489. abstract full text (pdf) For personal use only

 

Ingledew‚ D.K.‚ Markland‚ D.‚ & Strömmer‚ S.S. (2013). Elucidating the Roles of Motives and Gains in Exercise Participation. Sport‚ Exercise & Performance Psychology‚ 3‚ 116-131. abstractfull text (pdf) For personal use only

 
Ingledew‚ D.K. & Sullivan‚ G. (2002). Effects of body mass and body image on exercise motives in adolescence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise‚ 3‚ 323-338. abstract full text (pdf) For personal use only
 

Markland‚ D. (1999). Internally informational versus internally controlling exercise motives and exercise enjoyment: The mediating role of self-determination. In P. Parisi‚ F. Pigozzi‚ & G. Prinzi (Eds.) Sport Science ’99 in Europe. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Rome: University Institute of Motor Sciences. abstract

 

Markland‚ D. and Hardy‚ L. (1993). The Exercise Motivations Inventory: Preliminary development and validity of a measure of individuals’ reasons for participation in regular physical exercise.Personality & Individual Differences‚ 15‚ 289-296. abstract full text (pdf) For personal use only

 

Markland‚ D. & Ingledew‚ D.K. (1997). The measurement of exercise motives: Factorial validity and invariance across gender of a revised Exercise Motivations Inventory. British Journal of Health Psychology‚ 2‚ 361-376. abstract full text (pdf) For personal use only

 

Markland‚ D.‚ Ingledew‚ D.K.‚ Hardy‚ L. and Grant‚ L. (1992). A comparison of the exercise motivations of aerobics participants and weight-watcher exercisers. Journal of Sports Sciences‚ 10‚ 609-610. abstract