Breakfast Attitudes Questionnaire

Background:

Positive behaviors, beliefs and feelings about breakfast in childhood are important for good health and can impact on educational attainment. However, breakfast consumption has declined in recent years, especially among adolescents. The Breakfast Attitudes Questionnaire could be involved in assessment and intervention for breakfast promotion initiatives.

Development of a scale to measure 9–11-year olds’ attitudes towards breakfast, Breakfast consumption is associated with a range of benefits. Laboratory research shows that consumption of an adequate breakfast is linked to short-term improvements in attention (Wesnes et al., 2003), memory (Wesnes et al., 2003; Benton & Parker, 1988; Benton & Sargent, 1992; Smith & Kendrick, 1992; Smith et al., 1994, 1999), mood (Smith et al., 1994; 1999; Lloyd et al., 1996) and possibly motivation (Benton et al., 2001). (Though some studies have not found effects on specific attention, memory, and mood measures; Smith et al., 1994; Benton et al., 2001; Cromer et al., 1990.) These findings are borne out by experimental studies conducted in school settings which have shown positive effects of breakfast on memory (Vaisman et al., 1996), arithmetic (Powell et al., 1998), verbal fluency (Chandler et al., 1995), physical endurance, creativity (Wyon et al., 1997) and on-task behaviour (Bro et al., 1994). In a review of this literature, Pollitt (1995) concluded that breakfast consumption consistently improves the cognitive performance of undernourished children and, in the United States and Great Britain, also has cognitive benefits for well-nourished children.

Psychometrics:

Reliability and construct validity are confirmed in Tapper, Murphy, Lynch, Clark, Moore & Moore (2008)

Author of Tool:

Tapper, Murphy, Lynch, Clark, Moore & Moore

Key references:

Tapper, K., Murphy, S., Lynch, R., Clark, R., Moore, G.F. & Moore, L. (2008). Development of a scale to measure 9-11 year olds’ attitudes towards breakfast. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 62, 511-518

Primary use / Purpose:

A quick 13 item Likert questionnaire looking at childrens (ages 9-11) attitudes towards breakfast.

Attitudes towards breakfast

Domains, factor 1 loadings, means and standard deviations for items on the breakfast attitudes questionnaire.

ItemAttitude componentDomain
1. I usually eat healthy foods for breakfastBehaviourEating behaviour
2. I often miss breakfastBehaviourEating behaviour
3. It’s okay to miss breakfastBeliefImportance of breakfast
4. I hardly eat anything for breakfastBehaviourEating behaviour
5. I hate eating breakfastFeelingImportance of breakfast
6. I usually eat unhealthy foods for breakfastBehaviourEating behaviour
7. I can concentrate in class even when I’ve missed breakfastBeliefConcentration
8. I usually have a snack at morning break instead of breakfastBehaviourEating behaviour
9. I feel okay in the mornings even if I haven’t eaten breakfastBeliefFeelings of well-being
10. Eating breakfast is boringFeelingImportance of breakfast
11. I’d rather have a snack at morning break than eat breakfastFeelingImportance of breakfast
12. If I miss breakfast I feel more tired in the morningBeliefEnergy
13. I usually eat a good breakfastBehaviourEating behaviour