Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory

Martin, N. K., Yin, Z., and Baldwin, B. (1997). Attitudes and beliefs regarding classroom management style: Differences between male and female, urban and rural secondary level teachers. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association. ERIC ED 404 738.


The 26-item inventory assesses teachers’ perceptions of their classroom management attitudes and behav- iors. The Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) was previously known as the Inventory of Classroom Management Style. Items were written based upon actual classroom experiences and observations as well as suggestions from experts in the field.


The sample consisted of 282 teachers from three school districts located in the southwestern part of the United States.


The alpha coefficients were 0.82 (instructional management), 0.69 (people management), and 0.69 (behavior management).


Structural validity was confirmed by means of factor analytic procedures. The concurrent validity of the ABCC was examined by comparing the scores on the ABCC with the scores of the 16 Personality Factor Question- naire (16PF) Form A.

Factor Analysis:

The results of an orthogonal varimax factor analysis yielded three subscales: 14 items on instructional management (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 18, 21, 22, 24, and 26); eight items on people management (3, 4, 9, 12, 15,

17, 23, and 25); and four items on behavior management (13, 16, 19, and 20).

Data Analysis:

Scale means and standard deviations are presented as well as the results of an item analysis.


Martin, N. K., and B. Baldwin. (1996). Helping beginning teachers foster healthy classroom management: Implications for elemen- tary school counselors. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling 31:106–13.

Martin, N. K., Yin, Z., and Mayall, H. (2007–2008). The Attitudes and Beliefs in Classroom Control Inventory—Revised and Re- visited: A Continuation of Construct Validation. Journal of Classroom Intervention 42(2):11–20.

Wolfgang, C. H., and Glickman, C. D. (1986). Solving discipline problems: Strategies for classroom teachers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory

1. I believe the teacher should direct the students’ transition from one learning activity to another.
2. I believe it’s important to continuously monitor students’ learning behavior during seatwork.
3. I believe students should create their own daily routines as this fosters development of responsibility.
4. I believe students will be successful in school if allowed the freedom to pursue their own interests.
5. I believe the teacher should decide what topics the students study and the tasks used to study them.
6. During the first week of class, I will announce the classroom rules and inform students of the penalties for disre- garding the rules.
7. The teacher knows best how to allocate classroom materials and supplies to optimize learning.
8. When a student bothers other students, I will immediately tell the student to be quiet and stop it.
9. I believe class rules stifle the students’ ability to develop a personal moral code.
10. While teaching a lesson on library skills, a student begins to talk about the research she is doing for her book report. I would remind the student that the class has to finish the lesson before the end of the class period.
11. I believe teachers should require student compliance and respect for law and order.
12. When moving from one learning activity to another, I will allow students to progress at their own rate.
13. If students agree that a classroom rule is unfair, then I would replace it with one that students think is fair.
14. I believe students need the structure of a daily routine that is organized and implemented by the teacher.
15. I allow students to select their own seats.
16. When students behave appropriately, I will provide a reward of some kind such as points toward a party or free time.
17. I believe students should judge the quality of their own work rather than rely on what the teacher tells them.
18. I believe students will be successful in school if they listen to the adults who know what’s best for them.
19. I believe students should choose the learning topics and tasks.
20. During the first week of class, I will allow the students to come up with a set of classroom rules.
21. I believe the primary purpose of homework is to provide drill and practice of skills learned in the classroom.

22. I believe that students need direction in how to work together.
23. Students in my classroom are free to use any materials they wish during the learning process.
24. I specify a set time for each learning activity and try to stay within my plans.
25. I believe friendliness, courtesy, and respect for fellow students is something that students have to learn firsthand through free interaction.
26. I believe class rules are important because they shape the student’s behavior and development.


There are four responses for each item: Describes me very well = 4; Describes me usually = 3; Describes me somewhat = 2; and Describes me not at all = 1. The scoring is reversed for statements 3, 4, 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 10, 13, and 25. The higher the score, the more controlling (interventionist). Three separate scale scores are produced.