Trueblood Sexual Attitudes Questionnaire

Trueblood Sexual Attitudes Questionnaire‌

ROSEANN HANNON, DAVID HALL,1 VIANEY GONZALEZAND HOLLY CACCIAPAGLIA,

University of the Pacific, Stockton

 

The original Trueblood Sexual Attitudes Questionnaire (TSAQ) (Trueblood, Hannon, & Hall, 1998) was developed to reliably measure attitude change regarding the most common topics relating to sexual behavior covered in human sexuality courses. The authors were also interested in comparing attitudes by gender, ethnicity, sexual experience, etc. Based on Story’s (1979) approach, the TSAQ was divided into sexual attitudes acceptable for oneself versus acceptable for others. TSAQ items were developed based on an analysis of the content of college sexuality course textbooks, with a final scale containing 90 items divided into five subscales: Autoeroticism, Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Sexual Variations, and Commercial Sex. Topics less directly related to sexual behavior per se (e.g., abortion, marital relationships) were not included. Internal consistency (reliability) was assessed using coefficient alpha, which was .93 for the Self scale and .96 for the Other scale. Subscale coefficients (e.g., Autoeroticism- Self) ranged from .67 to .97, with the lowest coefficients for Heterosexuality and Commercial Sex. The revision (Hannon, Hall, Gonzalez, & Cacciapaglia, 1999) was designed to shorten the scale, replace poor items, and to assess test/retest reliability.

Description

The current questionnaire contains 80 items reflecting Self (40 items) versus Other (40 items) across the five subscales. Each item is rated on a 9-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1, I completely disagree to 9, I completely agree. Some questions are reverse scored. For total and subscale scores, higher numbers indicate a more liberal attitude. Questions from the five subscales are randomly ordered within the Self scale. The same 40 questions were reworded to reflect attitudes toward others and then randomly ordered within the Other scale. The following list shows sample items.

The division of the items into Self versus Other, with five major areas of content coverage in each, allows for more refined measurement of attitudes following a sexuality course. Changes in attitudes toward Self versus Others can be compared. One can note differential change in the five content areas, as they may vary in amenability to change. The questionnaire can also be used to study subgroups of particular interest (e.g., ethnic, age, Greek (fraternity/ sorority) versus non-Greek. Information from responses to the questionnaire may be used to guide the development of future courses, depending on course goals. Although

the scale has been used primarily with college students, there is no reason it cannot be used on other populations. It has been used by Duyan and Duyan (2005), by Petroski, Spears, Dempsey, and Kapalka (2007), and is listed in the GASP Measures Database, an American Psychological Association division site.

Response Mode and Timing

This questionnaire can be implemented as a paper instrument or by using online survey software. It typically takes 15–20 minutes to complete.

Scoring

The mean rating for the 8 questions in each subscale is normally reported, as well as the overall mean rating for Self and Other. The attached questionnaire has the subscale indicated for each question, as well as an R for reverse scoring.

Reliability and Validity

The questionnaire was tested in 1999 on 143 female and 51 male college students (median age = 20) in Northern California. Coefficient alpha was .97 for the entire mea-

TABLE 1

Mean and Standard Deviation for the Basic Scales

Single test (= 194)

3.47 (1.33)

5.21 (1.92)

Retest (= 104)

3.55 (1.48)

5.24 (2.04)

sure, .93 for the Self scale, and .96 for the Other scale. Test- retest reliability after 3 weeks was .94 (< .01). Caucasians were significantly more liberal on both the Self and Other scales than Asians and Hispanics, who did not differ from each other, (2, 157) = 10.86, < .001. Gender differences were not significant.

Mean scores for the Self and Other scales for the single test and retesting are shown in Table 1. Test-retest reliability is excellent. Self versus Other comparisons were significantly different on both testings (< .001). As expected, the participants were more liberal about others’ behavior than their own.

Coefficient alpha for each subscale is shown in Table 2, along with the mean rating for each of the 10 sub- scales. Ratings were acceptable for all subscales except

1Please address correspondence to David S. Hall, 2111 Lido Circle, Stockton, CA 95207; e-mail: [email protected]

TABLE 2

Mean (SD) and Reliability (Coefficient Alpha) for the Five Subscales

Self

Other

F

<

Autoeroticism

4.33 (2.13) .88

6.13 (2.29) .91

260.06

.001

Heterosexuality

4.79 (1.52) .68

4.98 (1.37) .56

5.96

.015

Homosexuality

1.91 (1.57) .91

4.93 (3.15) .98

217.26

.001

Variations

2.90 (1.52) .78

7.96 (2.22) .88

306.05

.001

Commercial Sex

3.43 (1.48) .76

5.07 (1.86) .81

328.06

.001

Heterosexuality. The mean ratings for Self were significantly more conservative than for Other in each of the five areas. The largest mean difference between Self and Other occurred for Homosexuality.

The revised questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency for the total score, the Self and Other scores, and 8 of the 10 subscale scores. The Heterosexuality subscale scores were weaker.

Trueblood Sexual Attitudes Questionnaire

Subscales

  1. Masturbation/Erotic

  2. Heterosexual

  3. Homosexual

  4. Variations

  5. Commercial


 

Please answer the following questions about your attitudes toward your personal sexual behavior by writing the number between 1 and 9 that best represents how you feel in response to each question.

Completely Agree 1.......................2.......................3.......................4.......................5.......................6.......................7.......................8.......................9 Completely Disagree 

  1. I find that masturbating is an acceptable sexual outlet when I am not currently involved with a partner.

  2. I would engage in sexual intercourse with my fiancée before marriage.

  3. I would engage in oral genital sexual stimulation with a partner of the same sex.

  4. I would watch pornography with my partner to learn new sexual techniques.

  5. I could be involved in more than one sexual relationship at a time.

  6. I would find it acceptable to dress in the clothing of the opposite gender if I found it sexually arousing.

  7. It is acceptable for me to engage in bisexuality.

  8. Videotaping myself and my partner during sexual activity is acceptable to me if it is arousing.

  9. I do not believe there should be censorship of sexual materials because I want the freedom to enjoy sexual materials.

  10. It is acceptable for me to be attracted to members of the same sex as well as members of the opposite sex.

  11. I would find it acceptable to inflict pain on a consenting individual if I found it sexually arousing.

  12. I find it acceptable to watch other people engage in sexual activity.

  13. I personally believe it is acceptable for me to think or daydream about sexual activity.

  14. I believe I would engage in sex more often if I watched pornography.

  15. I would use my sexual activity only for reproduction, not for pleasure.

  16. When I am engaged in sexual activity with my partner, it is acceptable to fantasize about someone else.

  17. I would sell my sexual services for money.

  18. I would enjoy being dominated in a sexual relationship.

  19. I would use sexual activity for my own personal sexual pleasure.

  20. I would enjoy being the dominator in a sexual relationship.

  21. Even if I were married, I would engage in masturbation as an acceptable means of sexual outlet.

  22. It would be acceptable to me if a member of my own sex made an advance toward me.

  23. I would watch pornography to enhance my sexual relationships.

  24. I would appear in sexually explicit entertainment for money.

  25. I would engage in sexual intercourse with a partner of the same sex.

  26. I would use erotica (magazines, videos, books) as a means to stimulate sexual arousal for myself.

  27. I would engage in sexual intercourse only with my spouse.

  28. I would find it acceptable to receive a sexually obscene phone call if I found it sexually arousing.

  29. I would engage in mutual touching with a partner of the same sex.

  30. It is acceptable for me to engage in homosexuality.

  31. I would engage in group sex (3 or more people consenting).

  32. I would engage in sexual intercourse with a person of the opposite sex the first time we met.

  33. If I were single, I would engage in masturbation as a means of sexual outlet.

  34. I would engage in sexual intercourse only if I loved my partner.

  35. It is acceptable for me to engage in prostitution.

  36. I consider it acceptable for me to be attracted to members of the same sex.

  37. I would engage in oral genital sexual stimulation with a partner of the opposite sex.

  38. I would not watch pornography because it is harmful.

  39. I would engage in anal sexual stimulation with a partner of the opposite sex.

  40. When I am in a sexual relationship, I think it is still acceptable to fantasize about someone else.

The following questions refer to your beliefs about others.

  1. It is acceptable if other people are involved in more than one sexual relationship at a time.

  2. While other people are engaged in sexual activity with their partner, it is acceptable for them to fantasize about someone else.

  3. It is acceptable if other people use erotica (magazines, videos, books) as a means to stimulate sexual arousal for themselves.

  4. It is acceptable for another person to engage in oral genital sexual stimulation with a partner of the same sex.

  5. It is acceptable for other people to receive sexually obscene phone calls if they find this sexually arousing.

  6. It is acceptable for other people to think or daydream about sexual activity.

  7. It is acceptable for other people to engage in prostitution.

  8. It is acceptable if other people appear in sexually explicit entertainment for money.

  9. It is acceptable for other people to engage in masturbation as a means of sexual outlet if they are single.

  10. It is acceptable for other people to watch pornography to enhance their sexual relationships.

  11. Other people should not watch pornography because it is harmful.

  12. It is acceptable for other people to videotape themselves and their partner during sexual activity if it is arousing to them.

  13. It is acceptable for other people to engage in group sex (3 or more people consenting).

  14. It is acceptable for another person to be attracted to members of the same sex as well as the opposite sex.

  15. It is acceptable if other people find it acceptable when someone of their same sex makes an advance toward them.

  16. It is acceptable for another person to enjoy being dominated in a sexual relationship.

  17. It is acceptable for another person to engage in anal sexual stimulation with a partner of the opposite sex.

  18. It is acceptable if other people watch pornography with their partner to learn new sexual techniques.

  19. It is acceptable for other people to engage in sexual intercourse with a person of the opposite sex the first time they meet.

  20. I believe other people would engage in sex more often if they watched pornography.

  21. It is acceptable for another person to engage in sexual intercourse with a partner of the same sex.

  22. It is acceptable for other people to engage in homosexual activity.

  23. Even if they are married, it is acceptable for other people to engage in masturbation as a means of sexual outlet.

  24. It is acceptable for other people to dress in the clothing of the opposite gender if they find it sexually arousing.

  25. It is acceptable if other people are attracted to members of the same sex.

  26. It is acceptable if other people use sexual activity for their personal sexual pleasure.

  27. It is acceptable if other people engage in sexual intercourse with their fiancée before marriage.

  28. When they are in a sexual relationship, it is still acceptable for other people to fantasize about someone else.

  29. It is acceptable for another person to engage in oral genital sexual stimulation with a partner of the opposite sex.

  30. It is acceptable if other people engage in sexual intercourse only with a partner they love.

  31. It is acceptable for other people to use masturbation as a sexual outlet when they are not currently involved with a partner.

  32. It is acceptable for other people to use sexual activity only for reproduction, not pleasure.

  33. It is acceptable for other people to inflict pain on another consenting individual if they find it sexually arousing.

  34. It is acceptable for another person to engage in mutual touching with a partner of the same sex.

  35. It is acceptable for other people to engage in bisexuality.

  36. It is acceptable for another person to enjoy being the dominator in a sexual relationship.

  37. It is acceptable if other people only engage in sexual intercourse with their own spouse.

  38. It is acceptable if another person watches others engage in sexual activity.

  39. It is acceptable for other people to believe there should not be censorship of sexual materials because they want the freedom to enjoy sexual materials.

  40. It is acceptable for other people to sell their sexual services for money.


References

Duyan, V., & Duyan, G. (2005). Turkish social work students’ attitudes toward sexuality. Sex Roles, 52, 697–706. GASP Measures Database. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from apps.psych.utah.edu/psych/gasp/ newbindes.jsp

Hannon, R., Hall, D., Gonzalez, V., & Cacciapaglia, H. (1999). Revision and reliability of a measure of sexual attitudes. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 2. Retrieved October 4, 2008, from ejhs.org/ volume2/hannon/attitudes.htm

Petroski, J., Spears, J., Dempsey, A., & Kapalka, G. M. (2007). Relationship between attachment style and risky sexual behavior. In G.M. Kapalka (Ed.), Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the New Jersey Counseling Association (pp. 111–124). Retrieved on April 30, 2009 from www.njcounseling.org/index.php?option=com_ docman&task=cat_view&gid=38&Itemid=129

Story, M. D. (1979). A longitudinal study of the effects of a university human sexuality course on attitudes toward human sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research, 15, 184–204.

Trueblood, K., Hannon, R., & Hall, D. S. (1998, June). Development and validation of a measure of sexual attitudes. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality Western Region Annual Conference, Honolulu, HI.