Work Values Inventory


This measure, (Work Values) developed by Manhardt (1972), assesses the importance of 25 different job characteristics. Manhardt found that 21 of these characteristics grouped into three dimensions. These dimensions are comfort and security, competence and growth, and status and independence. Comfort and security includes job characteristics such as having comfortable working conditions, job security, and a regular routine. Competence and growth includes job characteristics such as intellectual stimulation, continued development of skills, and a feeling of accomplishment. Status and independence includes job characteristics such as opportunities to earn a high income, supervision of other employees, and working on problems of importance to the organiza­ tion (Manhardt, 1972). The measure has also been modified to assess the extent to which these characteristics are present in a current job (Meyer, Irving, & Allen, 1998).


Coefficient alpha values ranged from .63 to.72 for comfort and security; .65 to .80 for competence and growth; and .62 to .68 for status and independence (Meyer et al., 1998).


The value placed on comfort and security correlated positively with the value placed on status and independence and continuance commitment after 6 and 12 months in a job. The value placed on competence and growth corre­lated positively with the value placed on status and independence, normative commitment after 6 months in a job, and affective commitment after 12 months in a job (Meyer et al., 1998).


Meyer, J.P., Irving, P. G., & Allen, N. J. (1998). Examination of the com­ bined effects of work values and early work experiences on organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 29-52. Items were taken from Table 1, p. 36. Copyright© 1998. Reproduced by permission of John Wiley & Sons Limited.


Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = unim­ portant and 5 = very important.

Comfort and security items:

  1. Permits a regular routine in time and place of work
  2. Provides job security
  3. Has clear-cut rules and procedures to follow
  4. Provides ample leisure time off the job
  5. Provides comfortable working conditions

Competence and growth items:

  1. Requires meeting and speaking with many other people
  2. Is intellectually stimulating
  3. Requires originality and creativity
  4. Make a social contribution by the work you do
  5. Satisfies your cultural and aesthetic interests
  6. Encourages continued development of knowledge and skills
  7. Permits you to develop your own methods of doing the work
  8. Provides a feeling of accomplishment
  9. Provides change and variety in duties and activities

Status and independence items:

  1. Permits advancement to high administrative responsibility
  2. Provides the opportunity to earn a high income
  3. Requires supervising others
  4. Is respected by other people
  5. Requires working on problems of central importance to the organization
  6. Permits working independently
  7. Gives you the responsibility for taking risks

This content is licensed under a CC-BY license. The CC-BY licenses grant rights of use the scales in your studies (the measurement instrument and its documentation), but do not replace copyright. This remains with the copyright holder, and you have to cite us as the source.

Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Work Values Inventory. Retrieved from DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163