Total Quality Management: Stakeholders Perceptions

Currie, T. A. (1997). Total quality management in Georgia postsecondary technical institutes. EdD dissertation. University of Georgia.


The 37-item survey measures the magnitude of four key aspects of total quality management (leadership, empowerment, strategic quality planning, and human resource development) in postsecondary technical schools based upon the perceptions of administrators, faculty, and support staff.


A sample of 157 administrators, 280 faculty, and 131 support staff from postsecondary technical schools was surveyed.


A reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained with the pilot study of 45 administrators and faculty.


Content validity was established based upon a thorough review of the literature. Face validity was accomplished through a panel of experts.

Core TQM Tenets:

The following four key aspects were examined: nine items on leadership (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 24, 26, 30, and 31); 10 items on empowerment (3, 6, 11, 13, 20, 23, 28, 33, 35, and 36); nine items on strategic quality planning (8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 22, 29, 34, and 37); and nine items on human resource development (9, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 25, 27, and 32).

Data Analysis:

Scale means and standard deviations are presented as well as average composite scores for each item, for each group, and for each of the four components. Results of multivariate analysis of variance are reported.


Cornesky, A. (1992). Using Deming to improve quality in colleges and universities. ERIC ED 354 838.

Hixson, J., and Lovelace, K. (1992). Total quality management’s challenge to urban schools. Educational Leadership 50:24–27. Kaufman, R., and Hirumi, A. (1992). Ten steps to “TQM Plus.” Educational Leadership 50:33–34.

Marchese, T. (1991). TQM reaches the academy. AAHE Bulletin 44:3–9.

Tribus, M. (1993). TQM in education: The theory and how to put it to work. ERIC ED 370 168.

Total Quality Management: Stakeholder Perceptions

1. The President is personally and visibly involved in quality improvement projects.
2. My supervisor is personally and visibly involved in quality improvement projects.
3. I am allowed to make those decisions and instigate action in areas that affect my job.
4. The practices of my supervisor regularly demonstrate and communicate a commitment to exceptional customer service.

5. The practices of the President regularly demonstrate and communicate a commitment to continuous quality im- provement of programs and services.
6. All staff in the institute are provided an opportunity to participate on quality teams.
7. The President communicates his commitment to customer focus and quality values to all employees.
8. Periodic reviews of quality plans and performance are conducted with all employees.
9. The institute provides time and other resources to develop continuous quality improvement initiatives.
10. The institute collects and utilizes data on service quality and customer satisfaction to develop improvement plans.
11. My input is always welcomed concerning quality initiatives and process improvement.
12. The institute has operational (one-to-two year) and strategic (three-to-five year) plans that describe overall quality and performance goals and strategies for achieving those goals.
13. Collaboration among employees to improve the quality of programs and services is encouraged.
14. There is a plan to communicate quality expectations to all personnel at my institute.
15. The institute has developed a plan for committing resources for quality initiatives.
16. My job has changed significantly as a result of “redirection” of institute funds.
17. The job of someone with whom I work has changed significantly as a result of “redirection” of institute funds.
18. Employees are recognized for achievement of quality goals and strategies.
19. Employees are provided incentives to encourage them to contribute to quality improvements.
20. The President promotes employee authority to act.
21. Training in quality improvement techniques is part of each employee’s staff development plan.
22. Training is based upon a thorough analysis of employee staff development needs.
23. I am able to access the education and training I need to improve my contribution to my work unit.
24. Employees who pursue training in quality methods beyond the scope of that offered by the institute are rewarded through leadership opportunities.
25. Employees are rewarded for the achievement of quality goals and objectives.
26. The President measures institute success by the quality of programs and services provided rather than by a cost per credit hour ratio.
27. There is evidence that continuous improvements have been made in the reward systems to promote quality in my institute.
28. Employees in the institute are given the freedom to act without fear of retribution.
29. Plans and strategies are being developed to build and maintain positive relationships with institute customers.
30. The President utilizes total quality management principles in leading the institute.
31. The day-to-day practices of the institute’s administrators demonstrate commitment to total quality management principles.
32. My job provides me with a great deal of satisfaction.
33. Changes have been made in our organizational structure to facilitate employee empowerment.
34. My input is valued and incorporated in the long range planning for my unit.
35. Team initiative and innovation by employees are encouraged in my organization.
36. I feel free to take risks in an effort to improve the quality of my unit’s performance.
37. The institute employs systematic methods of evaluating the quality of products and services.


There are four responses for each item: 1 = strong disbelief; 2 = disbelief; 3 = moderate belief; and 4 = strong belief.