Management Inventory on Modern Management

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1989). Management Inventory on Modern Management. Brookfield, WI: Elm Grove.


The 80-item Management Inventory on Modern Management (MIMM) examines eight areas of modern management. Each area has 10 items that deal with philosophy, principles, and approaches of effective managers. Ac- cording to the author, the MIMM has the following uses: “to determine the need for training; as a tool for conference discussion, to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course; to provide information for on-the-job coaching; and to assist in the selection of managers.”


The eight management categories are: leadership styles (1–10); selecting and training (11–20); communicating (21–30); motivating (31–40); managing change (41–50); delegating (51–60); decision-making (61–70); and managing time (71–80).

Data Analysis:

Mean scores are reported for 67 personnel/training managers and for 232 line managers.


Gellerman, S. (1963). Motivation and productivity. New York: Amacom.

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1983). A practical guide for supervisory training and development. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Management Inventory on Modern Management

Leadership Styles

1. In order to be effective, a manager must be able to perform all the jobs in the department.
2. “Management by Objectives,” means that a manager sets objectives for subordinates and measures their results against those objectives.
3. Every manager should have the dual objectives of contributing to the effectiveness of the organization and maintain- ing high morale among subordinates.
4. Managers who are “employee-centered” are always more effective than those who are “job-centered.”
5. According to Blake and Mouton in describing the “Managerial Grid,” a manager who has high concern for both productivity and people is most apt to be successful in most situations on a long-term basis.
6. According to McGregor, Theory “X” managers are more oriented to controls than are Theory “Y” managers.
7. According to Batten, an example of a “Tough-Minded Manager” is one who is “as hard as granite.”
8. All employees prefer a manager who uses a democratic rather than an autocratic style.
9. “Quality Circles” and “Performance Circles” are practical examples of participative management.
10. In order to be effective a manager must have the same leadership style as his/her boss.

Selecting and Training

11. The person with the highest intelligence, best personality and most experience should always be selected for a job.
12. Performance, seniority, and cooperation are the three most important factors when considering a nonsupervisory employee for promotion to first-level supervisor.
13. One of the most important qualifications for promoting a doer to a supervisor is the person’s desire to be a supervisor.

14. Employees who have performed their job in an outstanding manner should be rewarded by being promoted.
15. There is some truth to the “Peter Principle” which states that employees tend to rise to their level of incompetence.
16. Managers are responsible for the growth and development of their subordinates.
17. If classroom supervisory training is to be effective, it must be supported by the managers to whom the supervisors report.
18. A performance appraisal system is primarily for the benefit of the personnel department.
19. An effective performance appraisal program must include a requirement that subordinates know what is expected of them by their manager.
20. Many of the practices used by successful athletic coaches can be used by managers.


21. Good working relationships between manager and subordinate are an important foundation for effective communication.
22. The misunderstanding of an order or instruction can have serious results in terms of safety, production, and cost.
23. A manager has failed to communicate unless the receiver understands the message the way the manager intended it.
24. In order to have an effective company communication program, top management must take an active part.
25. Significant organizational changes should be communicated to all employees.
26. When it is important that a new policy be understood by all employees, the best way to communicate is through channels of authority in the organization.
27. If employees do not understand, they will usually indicate lack of understanding by asking questions or by saying they don’t understand.
28. The best way to get feedback is to ask, “Do you have any questions?”
29. It is worthwhile to conduct employee meetings in which employees are encouraged to ask questions, offer sugges- tions, and air their complaints.
30. If a manager is busy, it is best to tell a subordinate who wants to talk, “I’m busy right now, contact me later.”


31. Most employees are interested in doing work of which they can be proud.
32. It is possible for managers to motivate their subordinates.
33. Positive reinforcement is important not only for an outstanding job but also for any improvement in performance.
34. “Expect the best” from subordinates is good advice for managers.
35. When subordinates do not perform up to their potential, it is frequently because they encounter obstacles over which they have no control.
36. Very few employees will offer suggestions for improvement unless they are financially rewarded.
37. Money never motivates.
38. Freedom to make decisions is one of the highest forms of reward that can be given to outstanding performers.
39. According to Herzberg, the best way to increase the motivation of an employee is to enrich the job.
40. According to Maslow, the need to be accepted by peers is usually stronger than the needs for recognition and self- satisfaction.

Managing Change

41. If you are promoted to a management job, you should make the job different than it was under your predecessor.
42. Empathy is one of the most important concepts in managing change.
43. Managers should welcome suggestions from all sources including subordinates and people from other departments.
44. If your boss tells you to implement an idea you think is a mistake, you should challenge it.
45. If your boss says “no” to an idea you’ve presented, you should not give up but should try to figure out a different approach to sell the idea.
46. Frequently, employees resist change because they think they will lose something.
47. Once you’ve decided on a change, you should implement it immediately.
48. It is better to communicate with a group concerning a change than to talk to each person individually.
49. A manager should encourage subordinates to try out any changes that they feel should be made.
50. “Ne Stupefaciamus” is good advice.


51. Delegation means the same as job assignment.
52. Delegation should always include the results to be achieved as well as the activities to be performed.
53. Delegation should be accompanied by a clear explanation of the degree of authority that the subordinate is given by the manager.
54. When delegating to a subordinate, a manager should make it clear the reporting he/she wants from the subordinate.
55. Delegation should always provide frequent points of control so that progress can be monitored.
56. Delegation should always save time for a manager.
57. When delegating, a manager should always be sure that the person can do the job.
58. Before deciding to whom to delegate, the reason for delegation should first be determined.
59. Activities can be delegated upward in an organization as well as downward.
60. Final accountability for the work cannot be delegated to a subordinate.

Decision Making

61. Decisions should be based on opinions as well as facts.
62. In making decisions, a manager should carefully consider the quality of the decision as well as the level of accep- tance on the part of those who will be affected.
63. When conflict arises between manager and subordinate, it is almost impossible for both of them to “win.”
64. When there is conflict between manager and subordinate, the manager must make the final decision or else lose face.
65. Brainstorming is a practical tool for use in group problem solving.
66. Group problem solving meetings are usually an exercise in frustration and a waste of time.
67. In making a decision that involves a group, it is important to decide “what is right” rather than “who is right.”
68. A group decision is always better than a decision made by one person.
69. Subordinates who are asked for their ideas and opinions regarding a decision are more likely to accept the final decision than those who aren’t asked.
70. Reasons for a decision should always be communicated along with the decision itself.

Managing Time

71. Managers should be judged and rewarded on the basis of the amount of time and energy they devote to the organization.
72. A wise use of time for a manager is to tour the department and informally talk with employees.
73. All managers should know how to say “no” to bosses, subordinates, and all other members of management.
74. A manager should always do the most important things first.
75. It is all right for a manager to set his/her own working hours rather than adhere to the working hours of subordinates.
76. Proper planning can reduce the amount of time spent on crises and emergencies.
77. Finding more discretionary time should be a goal of a manager.
78. When a subordinate comes to a manager with a problem which he/she can’t immediately solve, it’s a good policy to say, “I’ll look into it and let you know.”
79. Nonproductive meetings are one of the biggest time robbers.
80. It’s a good idea to handle each piece of paper only once.


Agree or Disagree. A separate answer booklet is provided. There is no incorrect answer for items 48, 49, and 75, The raw score is the total number of correct