Gender Socialization Scale (GSS)

Gender Socialization Scale (GSS)
Marina Epstein‚ 2008
1. Stand up for yourself; don’t let people walk all over you
2. It is a man’s responsibility to provide for his family
3. Men should be the initiators in romantic relations and should be the ones to ask women out
4. It shouldn’t matter how you look; it’s what’s inside that counts
5. Only you can know when you are ready for sex
6. Women are naturally just more nurturing than men
7. It is important to keep your emotions under control
8. Women shouldn’t be too loud or too rowdy
9. A woman can do anything a man can do
10. The father always knows what is best for the family
11. It is not appropriate to lose your temper in public
12. People who have premarital sexual relations risk bringing shame to the family name
13. Don’t settle for anything but the best
14. It is better for a woman to use her “feminine ch‎arm” (e.g. flirting‚ body language) to indicate her interest than to express it directly
15. It is important for both men and women to help take care of the children
16. It’s difficult for men to resist their sexual urges
17. Being gay makes a guy less of a man
18. In dating‚ the goal for men is “to score” with as many women as they can
19. It is perfectly acceptable for women to make the first move and to ask men out directly
20. People are people; gender doesn’t matter
21. Never show fear
22. The primary goal of sexual intercourse is to have children
23. Mothers need to be there for their children when the children are young
24. Your body is never good enough the way it is
25. Men are natural-born leaders
26. Being sexual is a natural part of being human
27. Men lose respect for women who sleep with them too early in the relationship
28. People will think you are weak/soft if you talk about your problems.
29. Women have just as many sexual urges and desires as men
30. Men and women should treat each other as equals at home‚ school‚ and at work
31. Family comes first
32. If you are overweight‚ you will have a hard time finding a date
33. You should abstain from sex until marriage to avoid getting pregnant or getting someonepregnant
34. Relationships work better when men and women work together and neither is more in ch‎arge
35. Women are happiest when they are in a relationship
36. Sex is a private matter and should not be discussed in private
37. Being polite is more important than getting your way
38. Men shouldn’t touch other men
39. It is important to look good‚ no matter how much time or energy it takes
40. It is important to act strong and together even if you are freaking out inside.
41. Abstinence is the best policy. Just say no
42. One’s life isn’t quite complete without a boyfriend/girlfriend
43. Being gay is bad/wrong
44. Men will say whatever they need to say to get a woman into bed
45. Sex belongs only in married relationships
46. Keeping things inside isn’t healthy
47. It is inappropriate to masturbate or touch yourself for sexual pleasure
48. A man should be muscular
49. The human body is nothing to be ashamed of
50. Quitting is for losers
51. ha‎ving sex should be viewed as just a normal part of dating relationships
52. There’s nothing wrong with being gay
53. Men are mostly interested in women as potential sex partners and don’t want to be “justfriends” with a woman
54. You need to be strong enough to defend yourself in a physical fight
55. It is worse for a woman to sleep around than it is for a man
56. A girl has to be thin to be beautiful
57. A woman needs a man who will protect her
58. It is not appropriate to hug and kiss your partner in front of members of your family
59. No man wants a woman to boss him around
60. It is up to women to limit the sexual advances of men and to keep them from “going too far”
61. A part of being nice is pretending to be happy even if you don’t feel like it
62. There is something wrong with people who don’t have a boyfriend/girlfriend
63. In order to catch a man‚ a woman should not be too friendly or available‚ but should play “hardto get”
64. It is important to help those who can’t help themselves.
65. ha‎ving children adds meaning to one’s life
66. A real man will not hesitate to fight to defend himself or his woman
67. There’s no shame in asking for help
68. People who have sex before marriage typically regret it later
69. A husband’s career is more important than the wife’s
70. Men want as much as they can get on the first date
71. A real man gets what he wants
72. A woman should cater to her man’s needs
73. Sex outside of marriage is a sin
74. Never let them see you cry
75. Use your words‚ not your fists
76. Men think about sex all the time
77. Always put others’ feelings before your own
78. Almost all men cheat some of the time
79. Be a leader‚ not a follower
80. A husband shouldn’t have to do housework
81. No sexual act should be considered immoral as long as both parties are consenting adults
82. You need to go along with what others want to get along.
83. Men want sex‚ women want relationships
Traditional Gender Roles‚ Acceptant and Egalitarian‚ Nice and Pleasant‚ Anti-Gay‚ the Big and Tough‚ Sexual Double Standard‚ Abstinence‚ Sex Positive
Traditional Gender Roles alpha = .87‚ Acceptant and Egalitarian alpha = .83‚ Big & Tough alpha = .77)‚ Nice and Pleasant alpha = .62‚ the Anti-Gay subscale alpha = .84‚ and the Body Consciousness alpha = .74‚ Sexual Double Standard subscale alpha = .88‚ Sex Positive alpha = .69)‚ Abstinence alpha = .80
This instrument can be found on pages 131-132 of “Adolescents in Conflict: Associations between Gender Socialization‚ Gender Conflict‚ and Well-being”. Available online at:  &
0= None‚ 1=A Little‚ 2=Some‚ 3=A Lot.
Traditional Gender Roles: items 25‚ 35‚ 42‚ 59‚ 62‚ 69‚ 71‚ 72‚ 74 and 80
Acceptant and Egalitarian: items 4‚ 9‚ 15‚ 20‚ 30‚ 46‚ 64‚ 67‚ 75 and 79
Nice and Pleasant: items 7‚ 11‚ 37‚ 61‚ 65‚ 77 and 82
Anti-Gay: items 17‚ 38‚ 43 and 52
the Big and Tough: items 13‚ 21‚ 40‚ 50‚ 54 and 66
Body Consciousness: items 24‚ 36 and 56
Sexual Double Standard: items 16‚ 18‚ 27‚ 44‚ 53‚ 60‚ 70‚ 76‚ 78‚ and 83
Abstinence Subscale: Items 12‚ 22‚ 33‚ 41‚ 45‚ 68 and 73
Sex-Positive Subscale: items 19‚ 26‚ 29‚ 51and 81

Epstein‚ Marina. 2008. Adolescents in Conflict: Associations between Gender Socialization‚ Gender Conflict‚ and Well-being. University of Michigan. Dissertations and Theses (PhD)