Symbolic Racism Scale (SRS)

Symbolic Racism Scale (SRS)
The Symbolic Racism 2000 Scale
Henry & Sears‚ 2002
 
Blacks Should Work Harder
1.   It’s really a matter of some people not trying hard enough; if blacks would only try harder they could be just as well off as whites.       
(1) Strongly agree‚ (2) Somewhat agree‚ (3) Somewhat disagree‚ (4) Strongly disagree
 2. Irish‚ Italian‚ Jewish and many other minorities overcame prejudice and worked their way up. Blacks should do the same [without any special favors].
(1) Strongly agree‚ (2) Somewhat agree‚ (3) Somewhat disagree‚ (4) Strongly disagree
Demands for Special Favors
3. Some say that black leaders have been trying to push too fast. Others feel that they haven’t pushed fast enough. What do you think?  
(1) Trying to push very much too fast‚ (2) Going too slowly‚ (3) Moving at about the right speed
 4. How much of the racial tension that exists in the United States today do you think blacks are responsible for creating?                      
(1) All of it‚ (2) Most‚ (3) Some‚ (4) Not much at all
Denial of Continuing Racial Discrimination
5. How much discrimination against blacks do you feel there is in the United States today‚ limiting their chances to get ahead?
(1) A lot‚ (2) Some‚ (3) Just a little‚ (4) None at all
 6. Generations of slavery and discrimination have cr‎eated conditions that make it difficult for blacks to work their way out of the lower class.
(1) Strongly agree‚ (2) Somewhat agree‚ (3) Somewhat disagree‚ (4) Strongly disagree
Undeserved Outcomes
7. Over the past few years‚ blacks have gotten less than they deserve.
(1) Strongly agree‚ (2) Somewhat agree‚ (3) Somewhat disagree‚ (4) Strongly disagree
 8. Over the past few years‚ blacks have gotten more economically than they deserve.
(1) Strongly agree‚ (2) Somewhat agree‚ (3) Somewhat disagree‚ (4) Strongly disagree
 
Reverse the following items: 1‚ 2‚ 3‚ 4‚ and 8.
For combining the items into a scale‚ there are several options‚ ranging from the simplest to the most precise: (1) One could simply add the raw scores together for each item‚ so that each individual has a score that could range from 8 to 31. (2) To compensate for any missing data‚ one could average the raw scores. (3) To compensate for the differences in the number of response alternatives‚ one could recode each of the items on a 0 to 1 scale‚ so for item #3‚ a 1 = 1‚ 2 = 0‚ and 3 = .50‚ and for the other items the high response is a 1‚ the next a .66‚ the next a .33‚ and the low response is a 0. (This third technique is the one used in Henry & Sears‚ 2002.) (4) To equate the variability across items‚ one could cr‎eate standardized (z) scores for each of the items in the scale‚ then average the responses.
 

Henry‚ P. J.‚ & Sears‚ D. O. (2002). The symbolic racism 2000 scale. Political Psychology‚ 23(2)‚ 253-283.

Sears‚ D. O.‚ & Henry‚ P. J. (2003). The origins of symbolic racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 85‚ 259-275.

Sears‚ D. O.‚ & Henry‚ P. J. (2005). Over thirty years later: A contemporary look at symbolic racism. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.)‚ Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 37‚ pp. 95-150). San Diego‚ CA: Elsevier Academic.