Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey

Ponterotto, J. G., et al. (1998). Development and initial score validation of the Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey. Educational and Psychological Measurement 58:1002–16.


The 20-item Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey (TMAS) assesses the multicultural awareness of teachers (K–12).

Scale Construction:

Based upon a thorough review of the literature, the initial item pool consisted of 50 items dealing with multicultural sensitivity and competence. After the research team (professor and three graduate students) evalu- ated the items, 31 items were left. Ten additional graduate students then evaluated these items (80 percent agreement). The original version of the TMAS contained 30 items. In addition, two focus groups were held. The TMAS was re- vised as a result of factor analytic procedures.


There were a total of 429 (teachers and teacher education students) people from New York, New Jersey, and New Hampshire who participated in Study 1. Study 2 consisted of 227 teacher education graduate students.


The alpha coefficient for the 30-item TMAS was 0.82. The alpha coefficient for the 20-item TMAS was 0.86. The theta coefficient was 0.89. Test-retest reliability over a three-week period (16 students) was 0.80.


Evidence for construct and criterion validity are provided.

Factor Analysis:

Although the results of a principal components factor analysis yielded four factors, the first factor accounted for 32.5 percent of the common variance. Therefore, a forced, one-factor procedure was employed (18 items had factor loadings above 0.35). These results were consistent with the findings in Study 1 that multicultural awareness is a single factor.

Data Analysis:

Means, standard deviations, factor structure coefficients, and item-total correlations are reported.


Joseph, A. C. (2011). Examining the perceived role of teachers’ ethnic identity, empathy, and multicultural sensitivity on teacher burnout. PhD dissertation, Fordham University.

Lin, L. G. (2011). Integrating Web2Quest technologies into multicultural education courses in Taiwan: A potential for globalization. PhD dissertation, Oregon State University.

Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research 7:156–76.

Ponterotto, J. G., et al. (1995). Development and initial validation of the Quick Discrimination Index (QDI). Educational and Psy- chological Measurement 55:1016–31.

Zygmunt-Fillwalk, E. M. (2003). Potential for change: The effects of curricular intervention on preservice education students’ attitudes toward multicultural teaching and learning. PhD dissertation, Ball State University.

Teacher Multicultural Attitude Inventory

1. I find teaching a culturally diverse student group rewarding.
2. Teaching methods need to be adapted to meet the needs of a culturally diverse student group.
3. Sometimes I think there is too much emphasis placed on multicultural awareness and training for teachers.
4. Teachers have the responsibility to be aware of their students’ cultural backgrounds.
5. I frequently invite extended family members (e.g., cousins, grandparents, godparents) to attend parent-teacher conferences.
6. It is not the teacher’s responsibility to encourage pride in one’s culture.
7. As classrooms become more culturally diverse, the teacher’s job becomes increasingly challenging.
8. I believe the teacher’s role needs to be redefined to address the needs of students from culturally diverse backgrounds.
9. When dealing with bilingual students, some teachers may misinterpret different communication styles as behavioral problems.
10. As classrooms become more culturally diverse, the teacher’s job becomes increasingly rewarding.
11. I can learn a great deal from students with culturally different backgrounds.
12. Multicultural training for teachers is not necessary.
13. In order to be an effective teacher, one needs to be aware of cultural differences present in the classroom.
14. Multicultural awareness training can help me work more effectively with a diverse student population.
15. Students should learn to communicate in English only.
16. Today’s curriculum gives undue importance to multiculturalism and diversity.
17. I am aware of the diversity of cultural backgrounds in my classroom.
18. Regardless of the racial and ethnic makeup of my class, it is important for all students to be aware of multicultural diversity.
19. Being multiculturally aware is not relevant for the subject I teach.
20. Teaching students about cultural diversity will only create conflict in the classroom.


Strongly Disagree = 1; Disagree = 2; Uncertain = 3; Agree = 4; and Strongly Agree = 5.

The scoring is reversed for items 3, 6, 12, 15, 16, 19, and 20. High scores represent greater appreciation and awareness of issues regarding multicultural teaching.