Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory

Cook, W. W., et al. (1951). Minnesota Teac\\her Attitude Inventory. Psychological Corporation, 555 Academic Court, San Antonio, TX 78204-2498.


The 150-item Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) is used to assess attitudes that determine how well a teacher will get along with students. MTAI scores have been reported as unstable during the time between preservice and regular classroom teaching. The scores can be used to identify attitudes along a continuum that ranges from traditional to progressive.

Scale Construction:

Leeds wrote 378 items in both positive and negative statements based on a review of the literature on teacher-pupil interaction. Two groups of 100 teachers (identified as superior or inferior) responded to the statements. One hundred sixty-four items differentiated between these two teacher groups. Another sample of 100 teachers participated. The final form of the MTAI contains 129 items that were developed by Leeds and 21 items developed by Callis.


The original sample consisted of 100 teachers who were identified as superior teachers and 100 teachers who were identified as inferior teachers. Another sample of 100 teachers in grades 4 through 6 responded to the inventory. Factor Analysis: Yee and Fruchter factor analyzed the MTAI. Orthogonal varimax rotations yielded five factors. Only items with factor loading above 0.42 are reported. Sixty items met this criterion. Children’s irresponsible tendencies and lack of self-control contains 20 items (19, 21, 23, 24, 35, 36, 52, 54, 63, 65, 75, 76, 80, 92, 109, 110, 114, 116, 126, and 128); conflict between teachers’ and pupils’ interests contains 15 items (20, 34, 99, 119, 121, 124, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 137, 141, 144, and 149); rigidity and severity in handling pupils contains 12 items (13, 27, 47, 72, 81, 85, 86, 88, 103, 115, 118, and 129); pupils independence in learning contains seven items (15, 16, 53, 64, 71, 77, and 93); and pupils’ acquiescence to the teacher contains six items (1, 90, 101, 107, 113, and 146). The first three factors are related to traditionalism, while the last two factors are related to progressivism.


Based upon Leed’s study, correlations with principals’ ratings were 0.46, 0.59 with observers’ ratings, and

0.31 with students’ ratings. Based upon Callis’s study, correlations were 0.19 with principals’ ratings, 0.40 with observers’ ratings, and 0.49 with students’ ratings.


Corrected split-half reliability was 0.93.


Johnson, W. A. (1983). Personality correlates of preferences for preprofessional training by special education and regular class trainees. Education 103:360–68.

Yee, A. H. (1970). Do principals’ interpersonal attitudes agree with those of teachers and pupils? Educational Administration Quar- terly 6:1–13.

Yee, A. H., and Fruchter, B. (1971). Factor content of the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory. American Educational Research Journal 8:119–33.


Strongly Agree; Agree; Undecided or Uncertain; Disagree; and Strongly Disagree. Responses are scored +1, 0, or −1. Therefore, scores range from −150 to +150. Yee and Kriewall scored items +2, +1, 0, −1, and −2.

Sample Items

  1. Teaching never gets monotonous.
  2. A teacher should not be expected to do more work than he is paid for.
  3. Teachers can be in the wrong as well as pupils.

From the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory. Copyright 1951 by the Psychological Corporation.