Taking Charge scale


This measure, developed by Morrison and Phelps (1999), uses 10 items to describe the behavior of “taking charge.” Taking charge entails voluntary constructive efforts to bring about functional changes in an organization. These may include changes in how work is performed. It is discretionary behavior that is inherently change oriented, aimed at improvement in the organization. The items in this measure are generally completed by co­ workers to describe a focal employee.


Coefficient alpha values ranged from .93 to .95. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the 10 items loaded on a single factor. In the cases where there were multiple co-workers’ ratings of an employee, the median intraclass correlation of these ratings was .36 (Morrison & Phelps, 1999).


Taking charge correlated positively with top management openness, general self-efficacy, felt responsibility, expert power, and organizational level. Ex­ploratory factor analysis showed that taking charge was empirically distinct from in-role behaviors, civic virtue, and altruism (Morrison & Phelps, 1999).


Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extra-role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 403-419. © 1999 by Academy of Management. Items were taken from Table 1, p. 410. Reproduced with permission of Academy of Management in the format textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.


Responses are obtained using a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 = very infrequently and 5 = very frequently.

  1. This person often tries to adopt improved procedures for doing his or her job.
  2. This person often tries to change how his or her job is executed in order to be more effective.
  3. This person often tries to bring about improved procedures for the work unit or department.
  4. This person often tries to institute new work methods that are more effective for the company.
  5. This person often tries to change organizational rules or policies that are nonproductive or counter productive
  6. This person often makes constructive suggestions for improving how things operate within the organization.
  7. This person often tries to correct a faulty procedure or practice.
  8. This person often tries to eliminate redundant or unnecessary procedures.
  9. This person often tries to implement solutions to pressing organizational problems.
  10. This person often tries to introduce new structures, technologies, or approaches to improve efficiency.

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Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Taking Charge scale. Retrieved from https://scales.arabpsychology.com/s/taking-charge-scale/. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163