1. There is little I can do to change many of the important things in my life.
2. I often feel helpless in dealing with the problems of life.
3. I can do just about anything I really set my mind to.
4. Other people determine most of what I can and cannot do.
5. What happens to me in the future mostly depends on me.
6. When I really want to do something‚ I usually find a way to succeed at it.
7. There are many things that interfere with what I want to do.
8. Whether or not I am able to get what I want is in my own hands.
9. I have little control over the things that happen to me.
10.There is really no way I can solve all of the problems I have.
11.Sometimes I feel that I’m being pushed around in life.
12.What happens in my life is often beyond my control.
Personal mastery: alpha = .70; Perceived constraints: alpha = .86
1- Disagree strongly‚ 2- Disagree somewhat‚ 3- Disagree a little‚ 4- Don’t know‚ 5- Agree a little 6- Agree somewhat‚ and 7- Agree Strongly
Perceived Constraints (Questions 1‚ 2‚ 4‚ 5‚ 7‚ 9‚ 10‚ & 11); Personal mastery (Questions 3‚ 6‚ 8‚ & 12)
Lachman‚ M. E. & Weaver‚ S. L. (1998). Sociodemographic variations in the sense of control by domain: Findings from the MacArthur studies of midlife. Psychology and Aging‚ 13‚ 553-562.
Lachman‚ M. E. & Weaver‚ S. L. (1998). The sense of control as a moderator of social class differences in health and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 74‚ 763-773.
Lachman‚ M. E.‚ & Burack‚ O. R. (1993). Planning and control processes across the life span: An overview. International Journal of Behavioral Development‚ 16‚ 131 – 143.
Lachman ME‚ Weaver SL. Technical report. Brandies University; Waltham‚ MA: 1997. Midlife Development Inventory [MIDI] Personality scales: Scale construction and scoring.