Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC)

The 29-item Sense of Coherence Scale
1.    When you talk to people‚ do you have the feeling they don’t understand you? never have this feeling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always have this feeling
2.    In the past‚ when you had to do something which depended upon cooperation with others‚ did you have the feeling that it: surely wouldn’t get done 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 surely would get done
3.    Think of the people with whom you come into contact daily‚ aside from the ones to whom you feel closest. How well do you know most of them? you feel that they’re strangers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 you know them very well
4.    Do you have the feeling that you don’t really care what goes on around you? very seldom or never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
5.    Has it happened in the past that you were surprised by the behavior of people whom you thought you knew well? never happened 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always happened
6.    Has it happened that people whom you counted on disappointed you? never happened 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always happened
7.    Life is: full of interest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 just routine
8.    Until now your life has had: no clear goals or purpose at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very clear goals and purpose
9.    Do you have the feeling that you’re being treated unfairly? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
10.In the past 10 years your life has been: full of changes without knowing what will happen next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 completely consistent and clear
11.Most of the things you do in the future will probably be: completely fascinating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 deadly boring
12.Do you have the feeling that you’re in an unfamiliar situation and don’t know what to do? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
13.What best describes how you see life? one can always find a solution to painful things in life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 there is no solution to painful things in life
14.When you think about your life‚ you very often: feel good to be alive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ask yourself why you exist at all
15.When you face a difficult problem‚ the choice of a solution is: always confusing and hard to find 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always completely clear
16.Doing the things you do every day is: a source of deep pleasure and satisfaction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a source of pain and boredom
17.Your life in the future will probably be: full of changes without knowing what 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 will happen next completely consistent and clear
18.When something unpleasant happened in the past your tendency was: “to eat yourself up” about it 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to say “ok‚ that’s that‚ I have to live with it” and go on
19.Do you have very mixed-up feelings and ideas? very seldom or never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
20.When you do something that gives you a good feeling: it’s certain that you’ll go on feeling good 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 it’s certain that something will spoil the feeling
21.Does it happen that you have feelings inside you would rather not feel? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
22.You anticipate that your personal life in the future will be: totally without meaning or purpose 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 full meaning and purpose
23.Do you think that there will always be people whom you can count on in the future? you’re certain there’ll be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 you doubt there’ll be
24.Does it happen that you have the feeling that you don’t know exactly what’s about to happen? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
25.Many people—even those with a strong ch‎aracter—sometimes feel like sad sacks (losers) in certain situations. How often have you felt this way in the past? never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
26.When something happened‚ you have generally found that: you overestimated or underestimated its importance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 you saw things in the right proportion
27.When you think of difficulties you are likely to face in important aspects of your life‚ do you have the feeling that: you will always succeed in overcoming the difficulties 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 you won’t succeed in overcoming the difficulties
28.How often do you have the feeling that there’s little meaning in the things you do in your daily life? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
29.How often do you have feelings that you’re not sure you can keep under control? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
The 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale
1.    Do you have the feeling that you don’t really care what goes on around you? very seldom or never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
2.    Has it happened in the past that you were surprised by the behavior of people whom you thought you knew well? never happened 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always happened
3.    Has it happened that people whom you counted on disappointed you? never happened 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 always happened
4.    Until now your life has had: no clear goals or purpose at all 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very clear goals and purpose
5.    Do you have the feeling that you’re being treated unfairly? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
6.    Do you have the feeling that you’re being treated unfairly? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
7.    Doing the things you do every day is: a source of deep pleasure and satisfaction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a source of pain and boredom
8.    Do you have very mixed-up feelings and ideas? very seldom or never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
9.    Do you have very mixed-up feelings and ideas? very seldom or never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
10.25. Many people—even those with a strong ch‎aracter—sometimes feel like sad sacks (losers) in certain situations. How often have you felt this way in the past? never 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very often
11.When something happened‚ you have generally found that: you overestimated or underestimated its importance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 you saw things in the right proportion
12.How often do you have the feeling that there’s little meaning in the things you do in your daily life? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
13.How often do you have feelings that you’re not sure you can keep under control? very often 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very seldom or never
 
SOC-29: reverse code items 1‚ 4‚ 5‚ 6‚ 7‚ 11‚ 13‚ 14‚ 16‚ 20‚ 23‚ 25‚ and 27.
Subscales are: Comprehensibility (cognitive: items 1‚ 3‚ 5‚ 10‚ 12‚ 15‚ 17‚ 19‚ 21‚ 24‚ and 26)‚ Manageability (instrumental/behavioral: items 2‚ 6‚ 9‚ 13‚ 18‚ 20‚ 23‚ 25‚ 27‚ and 29)‚ and Meaningfulness (motivational: items 4‚ 7‚ 8‚ 11‚ 14‚ 16‚ 22‚ and 28).
SOC-13: reverse code items 1‚ 2‚ 3‚ 7‚ and 10
Comprehensibility (cognitive: items 2‚ 8‚ 6‚ 9‚ and 11)‚ Manageability (instrumental/behavioral: items 1‚ 3‚ 5‚ 10‚ and 13)‚ and Meaningfulness (motivational: items 4‚ 7‚ and 12).
 
 

Antonovsky‚ A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. San Francisco‚ CA: Jossey-Bass.

Antonovsky‚ A. (1993). The structure and properties of the sense of coherence scale. Social Science & Medicine‚ 36(6)‚ 725-733.

Eriksson‚ M.‚ and Lindstrom‚ B.‚ (2006). Validity of Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale: a systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 60(5): 376–381.

Mahammadzadeh‚ Aliakbar.‚ Poursharifi‚ Hamid.‚ Alipour‚ Ahmad. (2010). Validation of Sense of Coherence (SOC) 13-item scale in Iranian sample. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences‚ 5‚ 1451-1455

Antonovsky‚ (1987‚ 1997). Sense of Coherence Scale. In: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds). Tools for strengths-based assessment and evaluation‚ New York‚ NY: Springer‚ pp. 245-250. (2013). Google Scholar