1. I felt emotionally numb
2. My heart started pounding when I thought about my work with clients
3. It seemed as if I was reliving the trauma(s) experienced by my client(s)
4. I had trouble sleeping
5. I felt discouraged about the future
6. Reminders of my work with clients upset me
7. I had little interest in being around others
8. I felt jumpy
9. I was less active than usual
10.I thought about my work with clients when I didn’t intend to
11.I had trouble concentrating
12.I avoided people‚ places‚ or things that reminded me of my work with clients
13.I had disturbing dreams about my work with clients
14.I wanted to avoid working with some clients
15.I was easily annoyed
16.I expected something bad to happen
17.I noticed gaps in my memory about client sessions
Intrusion (0.80)‚ Avoidance (0.87)‚ Arousal (0.83)
1-Never‚ 2- Rarely‚ 3- Occasionally‚ 4- Often‚ 5- Very Often
Intrusion (2‚ 3‚ 6‚ 10‚ 13)‚ Avoidance (1‚ 5‚ 7‚ 9‚ 12‚ 14‚ 17)‚ Arousal (4‚ 8‚ 11‚ 15‚ 16)
Bride‚ B.E.‚ Robinson‚ M.R.‚ Yegidis‚ B.‚ & Figley‚ C.R. (2004). Development and validation of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale. Research on Social Work Practice‚ 14: 27-35.
Ting‚ Laura.‚ Frey J. J.‚ Sanders‚ Sara.‚ Harrington‚ D. (2005).The Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS).Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 11(3-4): 177-194.
Kazemi AS. (2011). Psychometric characteristics of STSS. Contemporary Psychology‚ 5: 638-40.