Pressure Management Indicator Questionnaire (PMI)

Please answer by circling the number which best represents your answer on the scale shown.
[1= Very strongly disagree‚ 2= Strongly disagree‚ 3= Disagree‚ 4= Agree‚ 5= Strongly agree‚ 6= Very strongly agree ]
1.    I often have too much to do in too little time.
2.    My job improves my quality of life.
3.    Reorganization places strain on staff for little or no benefit.
4.    I really enjoy my work.
5.    I worry about the future of my job.
6.    I usually leave work on time.
7.    I am strongly committed to the organization I work for.
8.    There is too much change within my organization.
9.    I have a great deal of control over my work.
10.The people I work for find it easier to blame than to praise.
11.My job is more enjoyable than it used to be.
12.The people I work with frequently discuss changing their jobs.
13.I am worried about the effects of ‘change’ programmes.
14.I feel comfortable asking my co-workers for their help.
15.Unrealistic deadlines for the completion of work are a regular occurrence.
16.I enjoy change.
17.The work I do is appreciated.
18.Reorganization is good for morale.
19.There is a general lack of stability within the organization.
20.My manager usually tells me when I have done a good job.
21.I get little support from my co-workers.
22.My manager doesn’t understand what I actually do.
23.People offer to help me without ha‎ving to be asked.
24.I often feel undervalued.
25.It is easy to get help from my colleagues.
26.I only get told how I am doing when things go wrong.
Please use the scale below to answer each question by circling the relevant number.
[1= Very much dissatisfaction‚ 2= Much dissatisfaction‚ 3= Some dissatisfaction‚ 4= Some satisfaction‚ 5= Much satisfaction‚ 6= Very much satisfaction]
1.    Communication and the way information flows around your organization.
2.    The actual job itself.
3.    The degree to which you feel ‘motivated’ by your job.
4.    The style of supervision that your superiors use.
5.    The way changes and innovations are implemented.
6.    The kind of work or tasks your are required to perform.
7.    The degree to which you feel that you can personally develop or grow in your job.
8.    The way in which conflicts are resolved in your organization.
9.    The degree to which your job taps the range of skills which you feel you possess.
10.The psychological ‘feel’ or climate that dominates your organization.
11.The design or shape of your organization’s structure.
12.The degree to which you feel extended in your job.
Please use the scale to answer each question by circling the relevant number. Consider the questions with reference to how you have felt over the last three months.
1.    Would you say that you tended to be a rather over conscientious person who worries about mistakes or actions that you may have taken in the past‚ such as decisions? [1= Very untrue to 6= Very true]
2.    During an ordinary working day‚ are there times when you feel unsettled and upset though the reasons for this might not always be clearly obvious? [1=Never to 2= Often]
3.    When the pressure starts to mount at work‚ can you find a sufficient store or reserve of energy which you can call on when needed to spur you on into action? [1= Not much energy to 6= Lots of energy]
4.    Are there times at work when you feel so exasperated that you sit back and think to yourself that ‘life is really just too much effort’? [1=Never to 2= Often]
5.    As you do your job‚ have you noticed yourself questioning your own ability and judgement and a decrease in your overall self-confidence? [1= Noticeable decrease to 6= No noticeable decrease]
6.    If colleagues and friends behave in an aloof way towards you‚ do you tend to worry about what you may have done to offend them as opposed to just dismissing it? [1=Definitely do not worry to 6= Definitely worry]
7.     If the tasks you have implemented‚ or the jobs you are doing start to go wrong do you sometimes feel a lack of confidence‚ and panicky‚ as though events were getting out of control? [1= Never to 6= Often]
8.    Do you feel confident that you have properly identified and efficiently tackled your work or domestic problems recently? [1=Have not ‘faced up’ properly to 6= Have ‘faced up’ properly]
9.    Concerning work and life in general‚ would you describe yourself as someone who is bothered by their troubles or a ‘worrier’? [1= Definitely no to 6= Definitely yes]
10.As time goes by‚ do you find yourself experiencing fairly long periods in which you feel rather miserable or melancholy for reasons that you simply cannot ‘put your finger on’? [1=Never to 2= Often]
11.Would you say you had a positive frame of mind in which you feel capable of overcoming your present or any future difficulties and problems you might face such as resolving dilemmas or making difficult decisions? [1= Definitely no to 6= Definitely yes]
12.Are there times at work when the things you have got to deal with simply become too much and you feel so overtaxed that you think you are ‘cracking up’? [1= Definitely no to 6= Definitely yes]
Please answer these questions thinking about how often you have felt these symptoms over the last three months. [1= Never‚ 2= Very infrequently‚ 3= Infrequently‚ 4= Sometimes‚ 5= Frequently‚ 6= Very frequently]
1.    Feeling unaccountably tired or exhausted.
2.    Tendency to eat‚ drink‚ or smoke more than usual.
3.    Shortness of breath or feeling dizzy.
4.    Muscles trembling (e.g. eye twitch).
5.    Pricking sensation or twinges in parts of your body.
6.    Feeling as though you do not want to get up in the morning.
7.    Lack of energy.
8.    Difficulty in sleeping.
9.    Headaches.
In this section please record the extent to which you agree or disagree with statements about yourself and your behaviour. [1= Very strongly disagree‚ 2= Strongly disagree‚ 3= Disagree‚ 4= Agree‚ 5= Strongly agree‚ 6= Very strongly agree ]
1.    Because I am satisfied with life I am not an especially ambitious person who has a need to succeed or progress in their career.
2.    I get anxious if I think I am going to be late for an appointment.
3.    I am more conscious of time than most people.
4.    My impatience with slowness means‚ for example‚ that when talking with other people‚ my mind tends to race ahead and I anticipate what the other person is going to say.
5.    I am not especially achievement-oriented.
6.    I get annoyed when things do not happen quickly enough.
7.    I am a fairly easy going individual‚ who takes life as it comes and who is not especially ‘action oriented’.
8.    I find waiting in queues very frustrating.
9.    I get angry when I can not get things done on time.
10.I am not an especially achievement-oriented person who continually behaves in a competitive way or who has a need to win or excel in whatever I do.
11.I get angry when people keep me waiting.
12.I am a competitive person.
13.I get impatient with other people.
14.I have a heightened pace of living in that I do things quickly such as eating‚ talking‚ walking and so on.
15.I am a very impatient sort of person who finds waiting around difficult‚ especially for other people.
Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements. [1= Very strongly disagree‚ 2= Strongly disagree‚ 3= Disagree‚ 4= Agree‚ 5= Strongly agree‚ 6= Very strongly agree ]
1.    Assessments of performance do not reflect the way and how hard individuals work.
2.    Even though some people try to control company events by taking part in social affairs or office politics‚ most of us are subject to influences we can neither comprehend nor control.
3.    Management can be unfair when appraising subordinates since their performance is often influenced by accidental events.
4.    The things that happen to people are more under their control than a function of luck or chance.
5.    Most of us are subject to events we cannot influence or control.
6.    I have little influence over what happens to me at work.
7.    I have a lot of discretion in my work.
8.    I enjoy the freedom to manage my own work.
9.    I feel uncomfortable when I’m not sure what I have to do.
10.I find it easy to achieve what I want.
11.I feel I need to be in control.
12.I like to be told what to do.
13.I think that my job gives me a lot of influence.
14.I like other people to organize my life for me.
15.People can change their circumstances.
The following items are all potential sources of pressure. Please rate them according to the degree of pressure you perceive they have placed on you during the last three months. Please answer the questions as they actually apply to you. Do not answer theoretically. For example‚ if a question asks about pressure from managing your staff and you do not have anyone working for you‚ you should answer ‚ i.e. no pressure. Do not answer on the basis of how much pressure you would expect to feel if you had to manage staff. [1= Very definitely is not a source‚ 2= Definitely is not a source‚ 3= Generally is not a source‚ 4= Generally is a source‚ 5= Definitely is a source‚ 6= Very definitely is a source]
1.    Managing or supervising the work of other people.
2.    Taking my work home.
3.    Underpromotion – working at a level below my level of ability.
4.    Inadequate guidance and backup from superiors.
5.    Lack of consultation and communication.
6.    Not being able to ‘switch off’ at home.
7.    Keeping up with new techniques‚ ideas‚ technology or innovations.
8.    Inadequate or poor quality of training/management development.
9.    Attending meetings.
10.Lack of social support by people at work.
11.My partner’s attitude towards my job and career.
12.ha‎ving to work very long hours.
13.Conflicting job tasks and demands in the role I play.
14.Discrimination and favouritism.
15.Feeling isolated.
16.A lack of encouragement from superiors.
17.Demands my work makes on my relationship with my partner / children.
18.Being undervalued.
19.ha‎ving to take risks.
20.Inadequate feedback about my own performance.
21.Business travel.
22.Simply being seen as ‘boss’.
23.Unclear promotion prospects.
24.Absence of emotional support from others outside work.
25.Demands that work makes on my private / social life.
26.Changes in the way you are asked to do your job.
27.Simply being ‘visible’ or ‘available’.
28.Lack of practical support from others outside work.
29.Factors not under your direct control.
30.Home life with a partner who is also pursuing a career.
31.Dealing with ambiguous or ‘delicate’ situations.
32.ha‎ving to adopt a negative role (such as sacking someone).
33.An absence of any potential career advancement.
34.Morale and organizational climate.
35.Making important decisions.
36.Implications of the mistakes you make.
37.Opportunities for personal development.
38.Absence of stability or dependability in home life.
39.Pursuing a career at the expense of home life.‎aracteristics of the organization’s structure and design.
This final section lists several ways of coping. Please answer these questions by thinking about how you have dealt with issues or events that have been a source of pressure to you during the last three months. [1= Never used by me‚ 2= Seldom used by me‚ 3= On balance not used by me‚ 4= On balance used by me‚ 5= Extensively used by me‚ 6= Very extensively used by me]
1.    Resort to hobbies and pastimes.
2.    Try to deal with the situation objectively in an unemotional way.
3.    Effective time management.
4.    Talk to understanding friends.
5.    Plan ahead.
6.    Expand interests and activities outside work.
7.    Use se‎lective attention (concentrating on specific problems).
8.    Set priorities and deal with problems accordingly.
9.    Try to ‘stand aside’ and think through the situation.
10.Seek as much social support as possible.
11.Don’t let things get to me.
12.Keep calm under pressure.
13.Keep home and work separate.
14.Find time to relax.
15.Enjoy life outside of work.
16.Try to reduce my workload.
17.Share my concerns with other people
Job satisfaction‚ Organizational satisfaction‚ Organizational security‚ Organizational commitmentState of mindResilience‚ Confidence level‚ Physical symptoms‚ Energy levels (Behavioral Symptoms)‚ Workload‚ Relationships‚ RecognitionOrganizational climatePersonal responsibility‚ Managerial role‚ Home-work balance‚ Daily hassles‚ Drive‚ Patience-Impatience‚ Control‚ Personal influence‚ Problem focus‚ Life-work balance‚ Social support

Williams‚ S.‚ & Cooper‚ C. L. (1996). Pressure Management Indicator. Harrogate‚ England: RAD.

Williams‚ A. & Cooper‚ C. (1998). Measuring occupational stress: Development of the Pressure Management Indicator. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology‚ 3(4)‚ 306-321.