Perfectionism in Sport Scale (PSS)

Anshel et al‚ 2003
1.    If I perform poorly in a competitive event I feel I have failed as an athlete.
2.    I set higher goals for myself than most people.
3.    My coach becomes angry with me or punishes me for performing less than perfectly.
4.    When I am working on something‚ I cannot relax until it is perfect.
5.    I feel very upset/angry if I make a physical or mental error during a contest/game.
6.    I never feel that I can meet my coach’s standards.
7.    I strive for perfection in my performance.
8.    Even while performing successfully‚ my coach tends to point out my mistakes during competition.
9.    My teammates/coach/fellow competitors will think less of me if I make a mistake.
10.I expect higher performance in my daily tasks than most people.
11.My coach rarely compliments me on my performance.
12.If I ask someone to do something‚ I expect it to be done perfectly.
13.My coach’s standards tend to be too high for me.
14.Before and during competition I hope I do not make any mistakes.
15.One of my goals is to be perfect at everything I do.
16.If I win a competition or generally perform well‚ I tend to criticize myself if I have made an error.
17.I can rarely meet my coach’s expectations of me.
18.I become frustrated/ angry if I make a small mistake during competition.
19.I have extremely high goals.
20.My coach usually expects me to perform perfectly.
21.Even the smallest mistake bothers me when I am competing.
22.I must always be successful at everything that I do.
23.I analyze my mistakes over and over so that I can improve on them in the future.
24.No matter how well I perform‚ my coach asks me to perform better.
Anshel‚ Kim & Henry‚ 2009
1.    Mom or dad was happy only if my performance is outstanding.
2.    Mom or dad expected me to be perfect in sport.
3.    I never felt like I could meet my parents’ standards.
4.    Mom or dad never tended to criticize my performance‚ even after complimenting me.
5.    I never felt like I could meet my parents’ expectations.
6.    As a child‚ I was punished for doing things less than perfect.
7.    Either parent always expected excellence from me as an athlete.
8.    Mom or dad never tried to understand the reasons for my mistakes.
9.    My mom or dad treated me differently after winning than after losing in sport.
10.After winning or performing successfully‚ at least one of my parents pointed out something I did not do well during the competition.
Factor 2: Self-Criticism (SC)
11.Even the smallest mistake bothered me when I am competing.
12.I criticized myself very hard after making an error.
13.If I won the competition or generally performed well‚ I still tended to criticize myself if I have made an error.
14.Making a mistake‚ even a “small” one‚ bothered me.
15.I felt very upset or angry if I made a physical or mental error during the contest.
16.I always strive for perfection in my sport performance.*
17.When I evaluate myself as an athlete‚ I tend to think about my weaknesses rather than about my strenths.
18.Even after I win‚ I do not feel happy about my performance.
Factor 3: (Neatness/Organization; N/O)
19.Neatness is very important to me.
20.I try to be a neat (tidy) person.
21.I am a neat (tidy) person.
22.Being organized is very important to me.
23.I am not an organized person.
Factor 4: Coach Expectations and Criticism (PE/C)
24.My coach would become angry with me or punish me if I performed below his expectations.
25.My coach rarely compliments me on my performance.
26.My coach does not usually try to understand the reasons for my mistakes.
27.My coach usually expects me to perform perfectly.
28.I can rarely meet my coach’s expectations of me.
29.No matter how well I performed‚ my coach asks me to perform better.
30.I would not refer to my coach as particularly sensitive.
31.Even after I perform successfully‚ my coach tends to point out my mistakes during competition.
 
Parental Criticism (PC)‚ Coach’s Criticism (CC)‚ Concern over Mistakes (CM)‚ and Personal Standards (PS)
 
 
1= strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree
 
 

Anshel‚ M. H. (1991). A survey of elite athletes on the perceived causes of using banned drugs in sport. Journal of Sport Behavior‚ 14‚ 283-307.

Anshel‚ M. H. (1993). Drugs in sport: Causes and cures. In J. M. Williams (Ed.)‚ Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (2nd ed.) (pp. 310-327). Mountain View CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.

Anshel‚ M. H.‚ & Eom‚ H. J. (2003). Exploring the dimensions of perfectionism in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology‚ 34‚ 255- 271.

Anshel‚ M. H. (2005). Chemical use: Chemical roulette in sport. In S. Murphy (Ed.)‚ The sport psych handbook (pp. 255-276). Champaign‚ IL: Human Kinetics.

Flett‚ G. L.‚ & Hewitt‚ P. L. (2005). The perils of perfectionism insports and exercise. CurrentDirections in PsychologicalScience‚ 13‚ 14- 18.

Anshel‚ Mark H.‚ Kim‚ Jwa K.‚ Henry‚ Ruth. (2009). Reconceptualizing Indicants of Sport Perfectionism as a Function of Gender. Journal of Sport Behavior; Mobile32.4 (Dec 2009): 395-418.

Stoeber‚ Joachim and Madigan‚ Daniel J. (2016) Measuring perfectionism in sport‚ dance‚ and exercise: Review‚ critique‚ recommendations. In: Hill‚ Andrew P.‚ ed. The psychology of perfectionism in sport‚ dance and exercise. Routledge‚ London‚ pp. 31-56.