1. Doping is necessary to be competitive.
2. Doping is not cheating since everyone does it.
3. Athletes often lose time due to injuries and drugs can help to make up the lost time.
4. Only the quality of performance should matter‚ not the way athletes achieve it.
5. Athletes in my sport are pressured to take performance-enhancing drugs.
6. Athletes‚ who take recreational drugs‚ use them because they help them in sport situations.
7. Athletes should not feel guilty about breaking the rules and taking performance-enhancing drugs.
8. The risks related to doping are exaggerated.
9. Athletes have no alternative career choices‚ but sport.
10.Recreational drugs give the motivation to train and compete at the highest level. [Recreational drugs assist in motivating athletes to train and compete at the highest level.]
11.Doping is an unavoidable part of the competitive sport.
12.Recreational drugs help to overcome boredom during training. [Recreational drugs help to overcome boredom outside of competition]
13.There is no difference between drugs‚ fiberglass poles‚ and speedy swimsuits that are all used to enhance performance. [There is no difference between drugs and the technical equipment that can be used to enhance performance (e.g. hypoxic altitude simulating environments)]
14.Media should talk less about doping.
15.The media blows the doping issue out of proportion.
16.Health problems related to rigorous training and injuries are just as bad as from doping. [Health problems related to rigorous training and injuries are just as bad doping side effects.]
17.Legalizing performance enhancements would be beneficial for sports.
Estimates of the PEAS' internal consistency (ranged between .71 and .91 across various samples) (Petroczi‚ 2009)
1= Strongly disagree‚ 2= Disagree‚ 3= Slightly disagree‚ 4= Slightly agree‚ 5= Agree‚ 6=Strongly agree
Petróczi‚ Andrea.‚ Aidman‚ Eugene. (2009). Measuring explicit attitude toward doping: Review of the psychometric properties of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise‚ 10(3)‚ 390–396.
Petróczi‚ Andrea. (2007). Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes‚ sport orientation and doping behavior. Substance Abuse Treatment‚ Prevention‚ and Policy‚ 2:34. DOI: 10.1186/1747-597X-2-34
Manouchehri ‚Jasem and Tojari‚Farshad. (2013). Development and validation of instruments to measure doping attitudes and doping beliefs. European Journal of Experimental Biology‚ 3(2):183-186
Soltanabadi‚ Sahar.‚ Tojari‚ Farshad and Manouchehri ‚Jasem. (2014). Validity and reliability of measurement instrument of Doping Attitudes and Doping behavior in Iranian professional athletes team of team sports. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN: 2231– 6345 (Online). An Open Access‚ Online International Journal Available at www.cibtech.org/sp.ed/jls/2014/04/jls.htm. 2014 Vol. 4 (S4)‚ pp. 280-286