PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I)
Foa‚ Riggs‚ Dancu & Rothbaum‚ 1993
RE-EXPERIENCING (need one): [probe‚ then quantify]
1. Have you had recurrent or intrusive distressing thoughts or recollections about the trauma?
2. Have you been having recurrent bad dreams or nightmares about the trauma?
3. Have you had the experience of suddenly reliving the trauma‚ flashbacks of it‚ acting or feeling as if it were re-occurring?
4. Have you been intensely EMOTIONALLY upset when reminded of the trauma (includes anniversary reactions)?
5. Have you been having intense PHYSICAL reactions (e.g.‚ sweaty‚ heart palpitations) when reminded of the trauma?
AVOIDANCE (Need three): [probe‚ then qualify]
6. Have you persistently been making efforts to avoid thoughts or feelings associated with the trauma?
7. Have you persistently been making efforts to avoid activities‚ situations‚ or places that remind you of the trauma?
8. Are there any important aspects about the trauma that you still cannot recall?
9. Have you markedly lost interest in free time activities since the trauma?
10. Have you felt detached or cut off from others around you since the trauma?
11. Have you felt that your ability to experience the whole range of emotions is impaired (e.g.‚ unable to have loving feelings)?
12. Have you felt that any future plans or hopes have changed because of the assault (e.g.‚ no career‚ marriage‚ children‚ or long life)?
INCREASED AROUSAL (need two): [probe then quantify]
13. Have you had persistent difficulty falling or staying asleep?
14. Have you been continuously irritable or have outbursts of anger?
15. Have you had persistent difficulty concentrating?
16. Are you overly alert (e.g.‚ check to see who is around you‚ etc.) since the trauma?
17. Have you been jumpier‚ more easily startled‚ since the trauma?
Inter-rater reliability for PTSD diagnosis (k=0.91)
0= Not at all‚ 1= Once per week or less/a little‚ 2= 2 to 4 times per week/somewhat‚ 3= 5 or more times per week/very much
Alvarez-Conrad‚ Jennifer‚ Foa‚ Edna B.; & Zoellner‚ Lori‚ A. (2001). Linguistic Predictors of Trauma Pathology and Physical Health.
Foa‚ Edna B. & Tolin‚ David F. (2000). Comparison of the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview Version and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale.
Hobfoll‚ Stevan E.; Johnson‚ Robert J.; & Vranceanu‚ Ana-Maria. (2007). Child Multi-Type Maltreatment and Associated Depression and PTSD symptoms: The Role of Social Support and Stress.