PARENTING STYLES AND CRIMINAL INVOLVEMENT

This section contains statements about your mother and/or mother figure. Please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement with the statement by circling the letter next to it.
Before you begin‚ please circle the letter indicating which female raised you the most while you were growing up and respond to the following statements with that person in mind.
 
1. The woman who raised me the most while I was growing up was:
A. Biological Mother
B. Adopted Mother
C. Foster Mother
D. Step Mother
E. Grandmother
F. Sister
G. Aunt
H. Female Cousin
I. Other Female Relative: __________________
J. None 􀃆Skip to #22 if se‎lected
2. Even if I didn’t agree with her‚ my mother felt that it was for my own good if I was forced to conform to what she thought was right:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
3. As I was growing up‚ I knew what my mother expected of me‚ but I also felt free to discuss those expectations with my mother if I felt that they were unreasonable:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
4. As I was growing up‚ I had no idea what my mother expected of me:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
5. While I was growing up my mother felt that children should have their way in the family as often as the parents do:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 6. Whenever my mother told me to do something‚ she expected me to do it immediately without asking any questions:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 7. As I was growing up‚ my mother consistently gave me direction and guidance in rational and objective ways:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 8. My mother never gave me any guidance as I was growing up:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 9. My mother felt that children need to be free to make up their own minds and do what they want to do‚ even if parents might not agree:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 10. My mother always felt that more force should be used by parents in order to get their children to behave the way they are supposed to:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 11. My mother gave me direction for my behavior and activities as I was growing up and she expected me to follow her direction‚ but she was always willing to listen to my concerns:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
 12. I feel like I raised myself more than my mother raised me:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 13. Most of the time as I was growing up my mother did what I wanted her to do when making decisions:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 14. As I was growing up‚ my mother let me know what behavior she expected of me‚ and if I didn’t meet those expectations‚ she would punish me:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
15. As I was growing up‚ my mother gave me clear direction for my behaviors and activities‚ but she was also understanding when I disagreed with her:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 16. I don’t know my mother’s views about discipline because she never communicated them with me:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
17. As I was growing up‚ my mother allowed me to decide most things for myself without a lot of direction from her:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
18. As I was growing up‚ I knew what my mother expected of me and she insisted that I conform to those expectations simply out of respect for her authority:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
19. As I was growing up‚ if my mother made a decision in the family that hurt me‚ she was willing to discuss that decision with me and admit if she had made a mistake:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
20. I did not learn effective communication skills from my mother:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 21. As I was growing up‚ my mother allowed me to form my own point of view on family matters and she generally allowed me to decide for myself what I was going to do:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 Section II:
This section contains statements about your father and/or father figure. Please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement with the statement by circling the letter next to it.
Before you begin‚ please circle the letter indicating which male raised you the most while you were growing up and respond to the following statements with that person in mind.
22. The man who raised me the most while I was growing up was:
A. Biological Father
B. Adopted Father
C. Foster Father
D. Step Father
E. Grandfather
F. Brother
G. Uncle
H. Male Cousin
I. Other Male Relative: __________________
J. None 􀃆Skip to Section III if se‎lected
23. Even if I didn’t agree with him‚ my father felt that it was for my own good if I was forced to conform to what he thought was right:
 A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 24. As I was growing up‚ I knew what my father expected of me‚ but I also felt free to discuss those expectations with my father if I felt that they were unreasonable:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 25. As I was growing up‚ I had no idea what my father expected of me:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 26. While I was growing up‚ my father felt that children should have their way in the family as often as the parents do:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 27. My father always felt that more force should be used by parents in order to get their children to behave the way they are supposed to:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 28. As I was growing up‚ my father consistently gave me direction and guidance in rational and objective ways:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 29. My father never gave me any guidance as I was growing up:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 30. My father felt that children need to be free to make up their own minds and do what they want to do‚ even if parents might not agree:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 31. My father felt that wise parents should teach their children who the boss is in the family:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 32. My father had clear standards of behavior for me as I was growing up‚ but he was willing to adjust those standards to my needs:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 33. I feel like I raised myself more than my father raised me:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 34. Most of the time as I was growing up my father did what I wanted her to do when making decisions:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 35. My father has always felt that most problems in society would be solved if we could get parents to strictly and forcibly deal with their children when they don’t do what they are supposed to do:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 36. My father gave me direction for my behavior and activities as I was growing up and he expected me to follow his direction‚ but he was always willing to listen to my concerns:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 37. I did not learn discipline from my father:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 38. As I was growing up‚ my father allowed me to decide most things for myself without a lot of direction from him:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 39. As I was growing up‚ I knew what my father expected of me and he insisted that I conform to those expectations simply out of respect for his authority:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 40. As I was growing up‚ my father gave me clear direction for my behaviors and activities‚ but he was also understanding when I disagreed with him:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 41. As I was growing up‚ my father did not direct my behaviors‚ activities‚ and desires:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 42. As I was growing up‚ my father allowed me to form my own point of view on family matters and he generally allowed me to decide for myself what I was going to do:
A. Strongly Agree
B. Agree
C. Neither Agree Nor Disagree
D. Disagree
E. Strongly Disagree
 I am interested in who was responsible for raising you while you were growing up. In the following question‚ “parents” refers to the individuals who you consider to be your mother and father.
43. When I was growing up‚ I lived with:
A. Two parents; both parents lived there and were involved in raising me
B. My mother‚ but my father was also involved in raising me
C. My father‚ but my mother was also involved in raising me
D. My mother‚ and she was the only one who raised me
E. My father‚ and he was the only one who raised me
F. Neither of my parents were involved in raising me
G. Other (please explain) ______________________________________
Section III:
This section contains questions asking about behaviors that you may or may not have engaged in. Please answer questions as honestly as possible.
Read the following events and mark the “Have you ever?” box with an “X” if you have engaged in that activity. Then estimate the number of times that you have engaged in the activity and place the NUMBER in the box.
 
Action
Have you ever?
How many times?
Hurt someone badly enough that they needed medical treatment
Purposely damaged or destroyed property belonging to another person
Paid to have sexual relations with another person
Set off a fire alarm for fun
Ran away from home while under the age of 18
Used a weapon to threaten another person
Stolen (or tried to steal) a motor vehicle‚ such as a car or motorcycle
Been paid for ha‎ving sexual relations with someone
Carried a gun without a permit
Lied about your age to gain entrance or to purchase something (e.g.‚ lying about your age to buy liquor or get into a bar)
Purposely killed someone
Stolen (or tried to steal) something worth more than $50
Sold marijuana
Thrown objects (such as rocks‚ snowballs‚ or bottles) at cars or people
Cheated in school (e.g.‚ copying another student’s answers or cheating on a test)
Hurt someone in a minor way (e.g.‚ slap in face‚ push to ground)
Lied to an authority figure (such as a teacher‚ boss‚ or parent)
Carried a hidden weapon other than a plain pocket knife
Skipped classes without an excuse
Attacked someone with the idea of seriously hurting or killing them
Stolen (or tried to steal) things worth less than $10
Bought alcohol for a minor or provided alcohol for a minor
Been loud‚ rowdy‚ or unruly in a public place (e.g.‚ disorderly conduct)
Been suspended from school
Hit (or threatened to hit) another person
Stolen money or other things from another person
Failed to return extra change that a cashier accidently gave you
Been drunk in a public place
Had (or tried to have) sexual relations with someone against their will
Avoided paying for such things as movies‚ bus or subway rides‚ and food
Made obscene telephone calls‚ such as calling someone and saying dirty things
Used force (strong-arm methods) to get money or things from another person
Stolen (or tried to steal) things worth between $10 and $50
Broken into a building or vehicle (or tried to break in) to steal something or just to look around
Knowingly bought‚ sold or held stolen goods (or tried to do any of these things)
Sold drugs other than marijuana
Gotten into verbal altercations (shouting/screaming) with another person
Read the following list of alcohol and drugs and mark the “Have you ever?” box with an “X” if you have used that substance.
Substance
Have you ever?
Tobacco (e.g.‚ Cigarettes‚ Chew) while under the age of 18
Alcohol (e.g.‚ beer‚ wine‚ liquor) while younger than legal drinking age
Alcohol (e.g.‚ beer‚ wine‚ liquor) while of – and older than – legal drinking age
Marijuana
Hallucinogens (e.g.‚ LSD‚ Acid‚ Mescaline‚ Peyote)
Amphetamines (e.g.‚ Uppers‚ Speed)
Barbiturates (e.g.‚ Downers‚ Reds)
Heroin
Cocaine (e.g.‚ Powder‚ Crack)
Methamphetamines
Prescription Pain Killers without valid prescription (e.g.‚ Vicodin‚ Percocet)
 
92. Did the way that your parents raised you contribute to your taking part in the behaviors asked about above? Yes/ No
93. Do you blame your parents for the behaviors that you took part in? Yes/ No
94. Are you more likely to keep your feelings inside you or let them out? Inside Outside
Section IV:
95. How old are you? _____
96. What is your sex? Male/ Female
97. With what race do you most identify:
African American/Black Asian/Pacific Islander/ Caucasian Hispanic/ Native American/ Other _______________
 
This instrument can be found on pages 197- 209 of PARENTING STYLES AND CRIMINAL INVOLVEMENT:A TEST OF BAUMRIND’S TYPOLOGY. Available online at:http://dspace.iup.edu/handle/2069/421
 

Spraitz. Jason D. (2011). PARENTING STYLES AND CRIMINAL INVOLVEMENT:A TEST OF BAUMRIND’S TYPOLOGY. A Dissertation Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy. Indiana University of Pennsylvania