1. There is not much that I can do about most of the important problems that we face today. (Powerlessness)
2. Things have become so complicated in the world today that I really don't understand what is going on. (Meaninglessness)
3. In order to get ahead in the world today‚ you are almost forced to do some things which are not right. (Normlessness) 4. I am not much interested in the TV programs‚ movies‚ or magazines that most people seem to like. (Cultural Estrangement) 6. I don't really enjoy most of the work that I do‚ but I feel that I must do it in order to have other things that I need and want. (Estrangement from Work )
Middleton‚ R. (1963). Alienation‚ race‚ and education. American Sociological Review‚ 28(2)‚ 973-977.
Robinson‚ John P.‚ Shaver‚ Phillip R. (1969). Measures of Political Attitudes. Institute for Social Research‚ University of Michigan/. Ann Arbor‚ Michigan