Maternal Resilience Scale (ERESMA)

1.    I try to make sure that my child withproblems is happy.
2.    I lose faith when my child who has difficulties stops making progress in his/her learning. [R]
3.    Whether I succeed in what I do is mainly up to others. [R]
4.    I feel that I am failing in the task of educating my child with problems.[R]
5.    God helps me so that my child who has problems gets the education he/she needs.
6.    It annoys me that my partner avoids making decisions concerning my child. [R]
7.    Lack of money limits the education that my child with problems receives. [R]
8.    It distresses me to realize that each day it becomes more difficult to raise my child with problems. [R]
9.    If I make a mistake‚ I look for someone to blame. [R]
10.My partner ignores me when I ask for help to understand what is happening with my child who has problems. [R]
11.What I do for my child with problems helpshim/her advance.
12.It is difficult to achieve the goals set for my child who has problems. [R]
13.I feel discouraged because no one helps me care for my children when they are sick. [R]
14.I believe that my child with problems will bebetter off in the future.
15.In my family it is difficult for us to agree on what to do so that my child with problems. [R]
16.My partner gets annoyed with me for spending time on my child with problems. [R]
17.I give advice to my child with problems sothat he/she becomes a respectful person.
18.When I need to take my children to the doctor‚ lack of money keeps me from doing so. [R]
19.I blame other people for the educational problems that my child has. [R]
20.I find it difficult to resolve situations that have to do with my child who is not doing well at school. [R]
21.I argue with my partner over what to do about the education of my child with problems. [R]
22.I get strength from God to continue raising my child with problems.
23.The most difficult situations I have faced are related to my child who has difficulties. [R]
24.I encourage my child with difficulties whenhe/she is discouraged at the effort it takes todo something.
25.I can’t count on support from anyone else when I am in trouble. [R]
26.I ask God to guide me on how to help my child with problems advance.
27.My health keeps me from taking care of my child. [R]
28.I lament the fact that I have a child with problems. [R]
29.ha‎ving faith that my child will improve helps set my mind at rest.
30.I learn from the problems my child has.
31.It’s impossible to turn to my relatives for help when there are economic needs at home. [R]
32.It takes a lot of work to improve the behavior of my child with problems. [R]
33.In order to improve the health of my child with problems‚ I seek out information that helps me decide what to do.
34.It is difficult for me to feel accepted by my partner. [R]
35.Prayer gives me interior peace.
36.Health problems of my child who is not doing well in school make me feel tense.
37.When my child with problems needs care‚ it is hard for me to access medical.
38.When I have problems with my child‚ I need someone to help me stay in a good mood. [R]
39.My partner discourages me from continuing to care for my child with problems.
40.Feeling afraid keeps me from finding out how to help my child with problems. [R]
41.My life is filled with problems. [R]
42.In my family‚ all of us make an effort to improve the well-being of my child who has problems.
43.It is hard for me to be proud of my child. [R]
44.When I encounter difficulties in obtaining medical care for my child with problems‚ I keep trying until I get it. can advance. [R]
45.In order to take care of my child with problems‚ I neglect my other children. [R]
Total scale 0.92
Self-determination (resilience) 0.84
Hopelessness 0.89
Spiritual faith 0.78
Rejection of personal responsibility 0.71
Lack of support from the partner 0.84
Limited resources for meeting needs 0.80
  • Self-determination
  • Hopelessness
This instrument can be found on pages 40-46 of Latino Families and Youth: A Compendium of Assessment Tools‚ available online at:
1 = Never
2 = Almost never
3 = Sometimes
4 = Frequently
5 = Always
The scale contains 45 items (14 positive and 31 negative‚ which need to be recoded in inverse order). The score for the scale is calculated byadding the values of the items for each factor. Higher values indicategreater maternal resilience.
Self-determination 11‚ 24‚ 1‚ 44‚ 17‚ 30‚ 42‚ 33‚ 14
Hopelessness 2‚ 8‚ 23‚ 12‚ 28‚ 20‚ 36‚ 43‚ 40‚ 45‚ 15‚ 32‚ 4
Spiritual faith 5‚ 22‚ 26‚ 35‚ 29
Rejection of personal responsibility 3‚ 19‚ 27‚ 38‚ 9
Lack of support from the partner 10‚ 21‚ 6‚ 39‚ 16‚ 34‚41
Limited resources for meeting needs 18‚ 25‚ 31‚ 7‚ 37‚ 13
If the mother or caregiver does not have a partner‚ the scale can be calculated with 38 items (eliminating “lack of support from thepartner”).

Roque‚ M. P.‚ Acle‚ G. y García‚ M. (2009). Escala de resilienciamaterna: Un estudio de validación en una muestra de madres con niños especiales [Maternal resilience scale: A validation study in asample of mothers with exceptional children]. Revista Iberoamericana

de Diagnóstico y Evaluación Psicológica‚ 1 (27)‚ 107–132.Artículo publicado también en versión electrónica:

Roque‚ H. M. P. (2012). Evaluación de las características de resiliencia materna y mediadores ante la excepcionalidad. En G.Acle (Coord.). Resiliencia en educación especial. Una experiencia enla escuela regular (pp. 105 -135). Barcelona‚ España: Gedisa. ISBN:978-84-9784-706-3.