Herth Hope Index (HHI)


The Herth Hope Index (HHI) is a 12-item self-report instrument that measures hope. It was developed by Peggy Herth in 1992 and has been used in a variety of settings, including clinical practice, research, and education.


Hope is defined as “a multidimensional life force characterized by a confident yet uncertain expectation of achieving a future good which the hoping person considers to be personally significant” (Herth, 1992, p. 129).


The concept of hope has been a topic of interest for philosophers and theologians for centuries. In the field of psychology, hope has been studied by a number of researchers, including Peggy Herth. Herth developed the HHI in 1992 based on her conceptualization of hope as a multidimensional construct.


The HHI measures hope along three dimensions:

  • Temporality and future: This dimension assesses the individual’s belief in the future and their ability to set and achieve goals.
  • Positive readiness and expectancy: This dimension assesses the individual’s sense of optimism and their belief in their ability to overcome challenges.
  • Interconnectedness: This dimension assesses the individual’s sense of connection to others and their belief in the power of relationships.

The HHI has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of hope. It has been used in a variety of settings, including clinical practice, research, and education.


  • Herth, P. (1992). Hope as a nursing construct: Renewing the spirit of care. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5, 129-135.
  • Herth, P. (2000). Measuring hope: Development of the Herth Hope Index. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32, 309-315.
  • Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 821-831.

Herth Hope Index (HHI)


1.    I have a positive outlook toward life
2.    I have short and/or long-range goals
3.    I feel alone
4.    I can see possibilities in the midst of difficulties
5.    I have faith that gives me comfort
6.    I feel scared about my future
7.    I can recall happy/joyful times
8.    I have deep inner strength
9.    I am able to give and receive caring/love
10.I have a sense of direction
11.I believe that each day has potential
12.I feel my life has value and worth
Note: 1999 items 2 and 4 reworded.
Strongly Disagree‚ Disagree‚ Agree‚ Strongly Agree
This instrument can be found at: http://www.npcrc.org/files/news/herth_hope_index.pdf 

Herth‚ K. (1992). Abbreviated instrument to measure hope: Development and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Advanced Nursing‚ 17(10)‚ 1251–1259.

Abdi‚ N.‚ Asadi‐Lari‚ M .‚ (2011). Standardization of Three Hope Scales‚ as Possible Measures at the End of Life‚ in Iranian Population. Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention‚ 4(2)‚ 71-77.

Kaye Herth. (1991‚1992). Herth Hope Index. In: Simmons C. A.‚ Lehmann P. (eds). Tools for strengths-based assessment and evaluation‚ New York‚ NY: Springer‚ pp. 197-199. (2013). Google Scholar