DIMENSIONS OF RELIGIOSITY SCALE

Variable:

The Dimensions of Religiosity (DOR) Scale is based on a model of spiritu­ality that makes a distinction among three components of religiosity: knowing (cogni­tion), feeling (affect), and doing (behavior). For each of these components, the authors identify two modes of religious involve­ment: the personal mode and the institu­tional mode. The cross-classification of these two components identifies six dimen­sions of religiosity: traditional and particu­laristic orthodoxy (cognitive), spiritual and church commitment (affective), and reli­gious behavior and participation (behav­ioral).

Description:

The scale was developed to operationalize the conceptual model just de­ scribed. Sets of items were formulated for each of the six hypothesized dimensions. Subsequent psychometric analyses resulted in the identification of seven subscales. The seventh subscale appears to measure famil­ial religious behavior, an area of interest to the Mormon church because of its explicit teachings and expectations regarding family life and religion. The subscales are as fol­ lows: Traditional Orthodoxy (5 items), Par­ticularistic Orthodoxy (4 items), Spiritual Commitment (5 items), Church Commit­ment (5 items), Religious Behavior (4 items), Christian Behavior (4 items), and Home Religious Observances (4 items). There are a total of 31 items. The items in the first 6 categories are rated on five-point Likert scales. The participation items re­ quest quantitative reports of the extent of in­volvement (e.g., frequency of prayer.)

While the instrument was developed to test a general model of religiousness, some of the item content is very specific to the Mormon Church (e.g., one item measures the authority of The Book of Mormon). All of the Particularistic Orthodoxy subscale and four of the five Church Commitment subscale items are directly related to Mormon doctrine. The specific nature of this content will limit the general utility of the scale.

The Traditional Orthodoxy scale consists of five items that state central doctrines of Christian theology. The Spiritual Commit­ment, Religious Behavior, and Christian Be­havior scales measure the person's religious experience and relationship to God as well as a range of behaviors and attitudes consis­tent with religious belief. Some items on these three scales are similar to items on the Intrinsic/Extrinsic religious orientation scale by Allport and Ross (1967).

Practical Considerations:

This paper and pencil measure can be completed in less than 15 minutes. There are no special instructions or scoring procedures. The subscales are scored by calculating the mean of the scale item responses. The measure has limited use­ fulness outside the Mormon Church. If one were to want to use this scale with non-Mor­ mon groups, some of the items which are only applicable to Mormon subjects would need to be rewritten. On the other hand, if one were specifically interested in a religious measure appropriate for use with Mormons, this may be the measure of choice.

Norms/Standardization:

There are no re­ ported norms or standardization samples given in the original study.

Reliability:

Internal consistency estimates of reliability were calculated using a sample of over 1400 active and inactive members of the Mormon Church. The coefficient alphas for each of the final scales were: Traditional Orthodoxy (.76) Particularistic Orthodoxy (.92) Spiritual Commitment (.88) Church Commitment (.80) Religious Behavior (.83) Christian Behavior (.75) Home Religious Observance (.87).

Validity:

A principle components factor analysis with varimax rotation of the factors yielded five factors with eigenvalues greater than one. The five factors were: a belief fac­ tor, two commitment factors, and two behav­ior factors. Subsets of items were also sub­jected to factor analyses. On the basis of the results of all the factor analyses, seven scales were created using the thirty-one religiosity items. No other validity data were available.

Dimensions of Religiosity

The following are the final 31 items included in the Dimensions of Religiosity Scale. Items are scored on one of three scales. The scales were as follows:

  • I = not at all 2 = slightly 3 = somewhat 4 = moderately 5 = exactly
  • I = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = not sure 4 = agree 5 = strongly agree
  • I = never 2 = a few times a year 3 = monthly 4 = a few times a month 5 = weekly 6 = a few times a week 7 = daily

The letters next to the items indicate which response scale was used for that item. (Traditional Orthodoxy)

  1. I believe in the divinity of Christ. (A)
  2. I have no doubts that God lives and is real. (A)
  3. There is life after death. (B)
  4. The Bible is the word of God. (B)
  5. Satan actually exists. (B)(Particularistic Orthodoxy)
  6. The president of the LOS Church is a prophet of God. (B)
  7. The Book of Mormon is the word of God. (B)
  8. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the only church on earth. (B)
  9. Joseph Smith actually saw God the Father and Jesus Christ. (B)(Spiritual Commitment)
  10. My relationship with the Lord is an important part of my life. (A)
  11. The Holy Ghost is an important influence in my life. (A)
  12. I love God with all my heart. (A)
  13. Without religious faith the rest of my life would not have much meaning. (A)
  14. I am willing to do whatever the Lord wants me to do. (A)(Church Commitment)
  15. Some doctrines of the LOS Church are hard for me to accept. (A) (reverse scored)
  16. I don't really care about the LOS Church. (A) (reverse scored)
  17. I do not accept some of the standards of the LOS Church. (A) (reverse scored)

  18. The LOS Church puts too many restrictions on its members. (A) (reverse scored)

  19. Church programs and activities are an important part of my life. (A)

    (Religious Behavior)

  20. I encourage others to believe in Christ. (A)

  21. seek God's guidance when making important decisions in my life. (A)
  22. I admit my sins to God and pray for forgiveness. (A)

  23. How often do you pray? (C)

    (Christian Behavior)

  24. I try to carry my religion over in to all my other dealings in life. (A)

  25. I live a Christian life. (A)

  26. I share what I have with the poor. (A)

  27. I forgive others. (A)

    (Home Religious Observances)

  28. How often do you have family prayer? (C)

  29. How often do you have family religious discussions? (C)

  30. How often do you read the Bible or other scripture? (C)

  31. How often do you have family discussions about right or wrong? (C)

Location

Cornwall, M., Albrecht, S.L., Cunningham, P.H., & Pitcher, B.L. (1986). The dimensions of religiosity: A conceptual model with an empirical test. Review of Religious Research, 27, 226-244

Subsequent Research:

Cornwall, M. (1989). The determinants of reli­gious behavior: A theoretical model and empirical test. Social Forces, 68, 572-592.

References

Allport, G. W. & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Per­ sonality and Social Psychology, 5, 432-433.