California F Scale

California F Scale
Adorno et al‚ 1947‚1950
Form 78
2. Although many people may scoff‚ it may yet be shown that astrology can explain a lot of things.
3. America is getting so far from the true American way of life that force may be necessary to restore it.
6. It is only natural and right that women be restricted in certain ways in which men have more freedom.
9. Too many people today are living in an unnatural‚ soft way; we should return to the fundamentals‚ to a more red-blooded‚ active way of life.
10. It is more than a remarkable coincidence that Japan had an earthquake on Pearl Harbor Day‚ December 7‚ 1944.
12. The modem church‚ with its many rules and hypocrisies‚ does not appeal to the deeply religious person; it appeals mainly to the childish‚ the insecure‚ and the uncritical.*
14. After we finish off the Germans and japs‚ we ought to concentrate on other enemies of the human race such as rats‚ snakes‚ and germs.
17. Familiarity breeds contempt.
19. One should avoid doing things in public which appear wrong to others‚ even though one knows that these things are really all right.
20. One of the main values of progressive education is that it gives the child great freedom in expressing those natural impulses and desires so often frowned upon by conventional middle-class society.*
23. He is‚ indeed‚ contemptible who does not feel an undying love‚ gratitude‚ and respect for his parents.
24. Today everything is unstable; we should be prepared for a period of constant change‚ conflict‚ and upheaval.
28. Novels or stories that tell about what people think and feel are more interesting than those which contain mainly action‚ romance‚ and adventure.*
30. Reports of atrocities in Europe have been greatly exaggerated for propaganda purposes.
31. Homosexuality is a particularly rotten form of delinquency and ought to be severely punished.
32. It is essential for learning or effective work that our teachers or bosses outline in detail what is to be done and exactly how to go about it.
35. There are some activities so flagrantly un-American that‚ when responsible officials won't take the proper steps‚ the wide-awake citizen should take the law into his own hands.
38. There is too much emphasis in college on intellectual and theoretical topics‚ not enough emphasis on practical matters and on the homely virtues of living.
39. Every person should have a deep faith in some supernatural force higher than himself to which he gives total allegiance and whose decisions he does not question.
42. No matter how they act on the surface‚ men are interested in women for only one reason.
43. Sciences like chemistry‚ physics‚ and medicine have carried men very far‚ but there are many important things that can never possibly be understood by the human mind.
46. The sexual orgies of the old Greeks and Romans are nursery school stuff compared to some of the goings-on in this country today‚ even in circles where people might least expect it.
47. No insult to our honor 'should ever go unpunished.
50. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
53. There are some things too intimate or personal to talk about even with one's closest friends.
55. Although leisure is a fine thing‚ it is good hard work that makes life interesting and worthwhile.
56. After the war‚ we may expect a crime wave; the control of gangsters and ruffians will become a major social problem.
58. What a man does is not so important so long as he does it well.
59. Human nature being what it is‚ there will always be war and conflict.
6o. Which of the following are the most important for a person to have or to be? Mark X the three most important.
artistic and sensuous
popular‚ good personality
drive‚ determination‚ will power
broad‚ humanitarian social outlook
neatness and good manners
sensitivity and understanding
efficiency‚ practicality‚ thrift
intellectual and serious
emotional expressiveness‚ warmth‚ intimacy
kindness and ch‎arity
65. It is entirely possible that this series of wars and conflicts will be ended once and for all by a world-destroying earthquake‚ flood‚ or other catastrophe.
66. Books and movies ought not to deal so much with the sordid and seamy side of life; they ought to concentrate on themes that are entertaining or uplifting.
67. When you come right down to it‚ it's human nature never to do anything without an eye to one's own profit.
70. To a greater extent than most people realize‚ our lives are governed by plots hatched in secret by politicians.
73. Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around so much and mix together so freely‚ a person has to be especially careful to protect himself against infection and disease.
74. What this country needs is fewer laws and agencies‚ and more courageous‚ tireless‚ devoted leaders whom the people can put their faith in.
75. Sex crimes‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals ought to be publicly whipped.
77. No sane‚ normal‚ decent person could ever think of hurting a close friend or relative.
(* Reversed Scored)
F Scale: Form 60
a. Conventionalism: Rigid adherence to conventional‚ middle-class values.
1. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
6. A person who has bad manners‚ habits‚ and breeding can hardly expect to be liked and accepted by decent people.
53. One main trouble today is that people talk too much and work too little.
b. Authoritarian Submission: Submissive‚ uncritical attitude toward idealized moral authorities of theingroup.
1. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
7. Science has carried man very far‚ but there are many important things that can never possibly be understood by the human mind.
11. Every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.
23. Young people sometimes get rebellious ideas‚ but as they grow up they ought to get over them and settle down.
29. No sane‚ normal‚ decent person could ever think of hurting a close friend or relative.
32. What this country needs most‚ more than laws and political programs‚ is a few courageous‚ tireless‚ devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.
44. In order for us to do good work‚ it is necessary that our bosses outline carefully what is to be done and exactly how to go about it.
c. Authoritarian Aggression: Tendency to be on the lookout for‚ and to condemn‚ reject‚ and punish people who violate conventional values.
6. A person who has bad manners‚ habits‚ and breeding can hardly expect to be liked and accepted by decent people.
17. An insult to our honor should always be punished.
19. What the youth needs most is strict discipline‚ rugged determination‚ and the will to work and fight for family and country.
22. The trouble with letting everybody have a say in running the government is that so many people are just naturally stupid or full of wild ideas.
34. Sex crimes‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals ought to be publicly whipped‚ or worse.
39. There is hardly anything lower than a person who does not feel a great love‚ gratitude‚ and respect for his parents.
49. Most of our social problems would be solved if we could somehow get rid of the immoral‚ crooked‚ and feebleminded people.
53. One main trouble today is that people talk too much and work too little.
58. Homosexuals are nothing but degenerates and ought to be severely punished.
d. Anti-intraception: Opposition to the subjective‚ the imaginative‚ the tender-minded.
16. When a person has a problem or worry‚ it is best for him not to think about it‚ but to keep busy with more cheerful things.
30. Some cases of feeblemindedness are caused by overstudy.
45. Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.
53. One main trouble today is that people talk too much and work too little.
e. Superstition and Stereotypy: The belief in mystical determinants of the individual's fate; the disposition to think in rigid categories.
7. Science has carried man very far‚ but there are many important things that can never possibly be understood by the human mind.
11. Every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.
18. It is more than just chance that Japan had an earthquake on Pearl Harbor Day‚ December 7‚ 1944·
24. Some people are horn with the urge to jump from high places.
30. Some cases of feeblemindedness are caused by overstudy.
35. People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the strong.
40. Some day it will probably be shown that astrology can explain a lot of things.
46. It is possible that wars and social troubles will be ended once and for all by an earthquake or flood that will destroy the whole world.
50. It's a mistake to trust anybody who doesn't look you straight in the eye.
f. Power and "Toughness": Preoccupation with the dominance-submission‚ strong-weak‚ leader-follower dimension; identification with power figures; overemphasis upon the conventionalized attributes of the ego; exaggerated assertion of strength and toughness.
2. No weakness or difficulty can hold us back if we have enough will power.
5. Any red-blooded American will fight to defend his property.
17. An insult to our honor should always be punished.
19. What the youth needs most is strict discipline‚ rugged determination‚ and the will to work and fight for family and country.
32. What this country needs most‚ more than laws and political programs‚ is a few courageous‚ tireless‚ devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.
35. People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the strong.
57. Most people don't realize how much our lives are controlled by plots hatched in secret by politicians.
g. Destructiveness and Cynicism: Generalized hostility‚ vilification of the human.
10. Human nature being what it is‚ there will always be war and conflict.
25. Familiarity breeds contempt.
41. The true American way of life is disappearing so fast that force may be necessary to preserve it.
h. Projectivity: The disposition to believe that wild and dangerous things go on in the world; the projection outward of unconscious emotional impulses.
36. Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around so much and mix together so freely‚ a person has to be especially careful to protect himself against infection and disease.
45. Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.
46. It is possible that ·wars and social troubles will be ended once and for all by an earthquake or flood that will destroy the whole world.
52. The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on in this country‚ even in places where people might least expect it.
57. Most people don't realize how much our lives are controlled by plots hatched in secret by politicians.
i. Sex: Exaggerated concern with sexual "goings-on."
34. Sex crimes‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals ought to be publicly whipped or worse.
52. The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on in this country‚ even in places where people might least expect it.
58. Homosexuals are nothing but degenerates and ought to be severely punished.
F Scale: Form 45 and 40
a. Conventionalism: Rigid adherence to conventional‚ middle-class / values. /
1. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
12. A person who has bad manners‚ habits‚ and breeding can hardly expect to get along with decent people.
37. If people would talk less and work more‚ everybody would be better off.
41. The business man and the manufacturer are much more important to society than the artist and the professor.
b. Authoritarian Submission: Submissive‚ uncritical attitude toward idealized moral authorities of the ingroup.
1. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn. ·
4. Science has its place‚ but there are many important things that can never possibly be understood by the human mind.
8. Every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.
21. Young people sometimes get rebellious ideas‚ but as they grow up they ought to get over them and settle down.
23. What this country needs most‚ more than laws and political programs‚ is a few courageous‚ tireless‚ devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.
42. No sane‚ normal‚ decent person could ever think of hurting .a close friend or relative.
44. Nobody ever learned anything really important except through suffering.
c. Authoritarian Aggression: Tendency to be on the lookout for‚ and to condemn‚ reject‚ and punish people who violate conventional values.
12. A person who has bad manners‚ habits‚ and breeding can hardly expect to get along with decent people.
13. What the youth needs most is strict discipline‚ rugged determination‚ and the will to work and fight for family and country.
19. An insult to our honor should always be punished.
25. Sex crimes‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals ought to be publicly whipped‚ or worse.
27. There is hardly anything lower than a person who does not feel a great love‚ gratitude‚ and respect for his parents.
34. Most of our social problems would be solved if we could somehow get rid of the immoral‚ crooked‚ and feebleminded people.
37. If people would talk less and work more‚ everybody would be better off.
39. Homosexuals are hardly better than criminals and ought to be severely punished.
d. Anti-intraception: Opposition to the subjective‚ the imaginative‚ the tender-minded.
9. When a person has a problem or worry‚ it is best for him not to think about it‚ but to keep busy with more cheerful things.
31. Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.
37. If people would talk less and work more‚ everybody would be better off.
41. The businessman and the manufacturer are much more important to society than the artist and the professor.
e. Superstition and Stereotypy: The belief in mystical determinants of the individual's fate; the disposition to think in rigid categories.
4. Science has its place‚ but there are many important things that can never possibly be understood by the human mind.
8. Every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.
16. Some people are born with an urge to jump from high places.
26. People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the weak and strong.
29. Some day it will probably be shown that astrology can explain a lot of things.
33. Wars and social troubles may someday be ended by an earthquake or flood that will destroy the whole world.
f. Power and "Toughness": Preoccupation with the dominance-submission‚ strong-weak‚ leader-follower dimension; identification with power figures; overemphasis upon the conventionalized attributes of the ego; exaggerated assertion of strength and toughness.
2. No weakness or difficulty can hold us back if we have enough will power.
13. What the youth needs most is strict discipline‚ rugged determination‚ and the will to work and fight for family and country.
19. An insult to our honor should always be punished.
22. It is best to use some prewar authorities in Germany to keep order and prevent chaos.
23. What this country needs most‚ more than laws and political programs‚ is a few courageous‚ tireless‚ devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.
26. People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the weak and strong.
38. Most people don't realize how much our lives are controlled by plots hatched in secret places.
g. Destructiveness and Cynicism: Generalized hostility‚ vilification of the human.
6. Human nature being what it is‚ there will always be war and conflict.
43. Familiarity breeds contempt.
h. Projectivity: The disposition to believe that wild and dangerous things go on in the world; the projection outwards of unconscious emotional impulses.
18. Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around and mix together so much‚ a person has to protect himself especially carefully against catching an infection or disease from them.
31. Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.
33. Wars and social troubles may someday be ended by an earthquake or flood that will destroy the whole world.
35. The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on in this country‚ even in places where people might least expect it. ·
38. Most people don't realize how much our lives are controlled by plots hatched in secret places.
i. Sex: Exaggerated concern with sexual "goings-on."
25. Sex crimes‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals ought to be publicly whipped‚ or worse.
35. The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on in this country‚ even in places where people might least expect it.
39. Homosexuals are hardly better than criminals and ought to be severely punished.
BASS REVERSALS
Astrology will never explain anything.
Sex criminals such as those who rape and attack children should be treated as sick people‚ not publicly whipped or worse.
A sane‚ normal decent person might have to hurt a close friend or relative.
Young people sometimes get rebellious ideas. As they grow up they ought to try to carry them out and not be content to get over them and settle down.
Weaknesses and difficulties can hold us back; will power is not enough.
Our lives are not at all controlled by plots hatched in secret places.
Decent people can get along with a person who has bad manners‚ habits and breeding.
Human nature being what it is‚ universal peace will come about eventually.
Familiarity does not breed contempt.
If people would discuss matters more before acting‚ everybody would be better off.
What a youth needs most is to be free to make up his own mind‚ to be flexible and to work and fight for what he considers right personally even though it might not be best for his Family and country.
Nowadays‚ not enough investigating of personal and private matters is done.
The artist and the professor are much more important to society than the businessman and the manufacturer.
Because of science‚ it will be possible for the human mind to understand most important things.
Self-reliance‚ respect for democracy and lack of need to submit to authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
Many fine people honestly could never bring themselves around to feeling a great love‚ gratitude‚ and respect for their parents.
Some of the goings-on in this country‚ even in places where people might least expect it‚ are tame compared to the wild sex life of the Greeks and Romans.
A person does not have to worry about catching an infection or disease just because many different kinds of people move around and mix together a great deal nowadays.
Homosexuals are not criminals and should not be punished.
People cannot be divided in to two distinct classes‚ the weak and the strong.
When a person has a problem or worry‚ it is best for him to think about doing something about it‚ not be distracted by more cheerful things.
What this country needs most‚ more than a few courageous‚ tireless devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith‚ is better laws and political programs.
An insult to our honor should be studied‚ not punished.
No people are born with an urge to jump from high places.
No person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.
CHRISTIE REVERSALS
It is highly unlikely that astrology will ever be able to explain anything.
Sex crime‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ are signs of mental illness; such people belong in hospitals rather than in prison.
It's only natural for people to sometimes have thoughts about hurting a close friend or relative.
If it weren't for the rebellious ideas of youth there would be less progress in the world.
There are many difficulties a person cannot overcome no matter how much will power he has.
Many people have too great a fear of plots hatched in secret by politicians.
People should be willing to overlook failures in manners and unpleasant personal habits in other people.
Human nature doesn't make war inevitable; man may someday establish a peaceful world.
You may dislike a person very much‚ but the chances are that if you get to know him well you'll have more respect for him.
It would be a good thing if people spent more time thinking and talking about ideas just for the fun of it.
In the long run it is better for our country if young people are allowed a great deal of personal freedom and are not strictly disciplined.
There are times when it is necessary to probe in to even the most personal and private matters.
The artist and the professor are probably more important to society than the businessman.
The finding s of science may someday show that many of our most cherished beliefs are wrong.
One of the most important thing s children should learn is when to disobey authorities .
Most honest people admit to themselves that they have sometimes hated their parents.
In spite of what you read about the wild sex life of people in important places‚ the real story is about the same in any group of people.
Even though people of all sorts mix together nowadays‚ you don't have to worry very much about catching an infection or disease.
It's nobody's business if someone is a homosexual as long as he doesn't harm other people.
It doesn't make much sense to divide people in to groups like the weak and the strong; too many people are strong in some ways and weak in others.
When a person has a problem or worry‚ it is best to face it and try to think it through‚ even if it is so upset ting that it keeps him from concentrating on other things .
It is more important for this country to have a just legal and political system than a series of trust worthy leaders‚ however‚ courageous‚ tireless‚ and devoted they might be.
Insults to our honor are not always important enough to bother about it.
An urge to jump from high places is probably the result of unhappy personal experiences rather than something in born.
It's all right for people to raise questions about even the most sacred matters.
30 items version
1= Disagree Strongly‚ 2= Disagree Mostly‚ 3=Disagree Somewhat       ‚ 4=Agree Somewhat‚ 5= Agree Mostly‚ 6=Agree Strongly
1.    Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn.
2.    A person who has bad manners‚ habits‚ and breeding can hardly expect to get along with decent people.
3.    If people would talk less and work more‚ everybody would be better off.
4.    The business man and the manufacturer are much more important to society than the artist and the professor.
5.    Science has its place‚ but there are many important things that can never be understood by the human mind.
6.    Every person should have complete faith in some supernatural power whose decisions he obeys without question.
7.    Young people sometimes get rebellious ideas‚ but as they grow up they ought to get over them and settle down.
8.    What this country needs most‚ more than laws and political programs‚ is a few courageous‚ tireless‚ devoted leaders in whom the people can put their faith.
9.    No sane‚ normal‚ decent person could ever think of hurting a close friend or relative.
10.Nobody ever learned anything really important except through suffering.
11.What the youth needs most is strict discipline‚ rugged determination‚ and the will to work and fight for family and country.
12.An insult to our honor should always be punished.
13.Sex crimes‚ such as rape and attacks on children‚ deserve more than mere imprisonment; such criminals ought to be publicly whipped‚ or worse.
14.There is hardly anything lower than a person who does not feel a great love‚ gratitude‚ and respect for his parents.
15.Most of our social problems would be solved if we could somehow get rid of the immoral‚ crooked‚ and feebleminded people.
16.Homosexuals are hardly better than criminals and ought to be severely punished.
17.When a person has a problem or worry‚ it is best for him not to think about it‚ but to keep busy with more cheerful things.
18.Nowadays more and more people are prying into matters that should remain personal and private.
19.Some people are born with an urge to jump from high places.
20.People can be divided into two distinct classes: the weak and the strong.
21.Some day it will probably be shown that astrology can explain a lot of things.
22.Wars and social troubles may someday be ended by an earthquake or flood that will destroy the whole world.
23.No weakness or difficulty can hold us back if we have enough will power.
24.It is best to use some prewar authorities in Germany to keep order and prevent chaos. You'll have to pretend it is 1946 when you answer this one..
25.Most people don't realize how much our lives are controlled by plots hatched in secret places.
26.Human nature being what it is‚ there will always be war and conflict.
27.Familiarity breeds contempt.
28.Nowadays when so many different kinds of people move around and mix together so much‚ a person has to protect himself especially carefully against catching an infection or disease from them.
29.The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans was tame compared to some of the goings-on in this country‚ even in places where people might least expect it.
30.The true American way of life is disappearing so fast that force may be necessary to preserve it.

Adorno‚ T.W.‚ Frenkel-Brunswik‚ E.‚ Levinson‚ D. J.‚ and Sanford‚ R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper.

Bass‚ B.M.‚ (1955). Authoritarianism or acquiescence?‚ Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 51‚ 616-623.

Christie‚ R.‚ Havel‚ J. and Seidenberg‚ B.‚ (1958). Is the F Scale irreversible? Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 56‚ 143-149.

Kirscht‚ J.P. and Dillehay‚ R.C‚ (1967). Dimensions of authoritarianism: a review of research and theory‚ Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.

Robinson‚ John P.‚ Shaver‚ Phillip R. (1969). Measures of Political Attitudes. Institute for Social Research‚ University of Michigan/. Ann Arbor‚ Michigan.