Variations in Value Orientations

Variations in Value Orientations
Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck 1961
 
1. Job Choice
Activity: Items A1 and A2
A (Doing) man needed a job and had a chance to work for two men. The two bosses were different. Listen to what they were like and say which you think would be the best one to work for.
A One boss was a fair enough man‚ and he gave somewhat higher (Doing) pay than most men‚ but he was the kind of boss who insisted that men work hard‚ stick on the job. He did not like it at all when a worker sometimes just knocked off work for a while to go on a trip or to have a day or so of fun‚ and he thought it was right not to take such a worker back on the job.
B (Being) The other paid just average wages but he was not so firm. He understood that a worker would sometimes just not turn- - up would be off on a trip or ha‎ving a little fun for a day or two. When his men did this he would take them back without saying too much.
(Part one)
Which of these men do you believe that it would be better to work for in most cases?
Which of these men would most other __________ think it better to work for?
(Part two)
Which kind of boss do you believe that it is better to be in most cases?
Which kind of boss would most other think it better to be?
2. Well Arrangements relational: Item R1
When a community has to make arrangements for water‚ such as drill a well‚ there are three different ways they can decide to arrange things like location‚ and who is going to do the work.
A (Lin) There are some communities where it is mainly the older or recognized leaders of the important families who decide the plans. Everyone usually accepts what they say without much discussion since they are the ones who are used to deciding such things and are the ones who have had the most experience.
B (Coll) There are some communities where most people in the group have a part in making the plans. Lots of different people talk‚ but nothing is done until almost everyone comes to agree as to what is best to be done.
C (Ind) There are some communities where everyone holds to his own opinion‚ and they decide the matter by vote. They do what the largest number want even though there are still a very great many people who disagree and object to the action.
Which way do you think is usually best in such cases?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which way of all three ways do you think most other persons in would usually think is best?
3. Child Training
Time: Item T l
Some people were talking about the way children should be brought up. Here are three different ideas.
A (Past) Some people say that children should be taught well the traditions of the past (the ways of the old people). They believe the old ways are best‚ and that it is when children do not follow them too much that things go wrong.
B (Pres) Some people say that children should be taught some of the old traditions (ways of the old people)‚ but it is wrong to insist that they stick to these ways. These people believe that it is necessary for children always to learn about and take on whatever of the new ways will best help them get along in the world of today.
C (Fut) Some people do not believe children should be taught much about past traditions (the ways of the old people) at all except as an interesting story of what has gone before.
These people believe that the world goes along best when children are taught the things that will make them want to find out for themselves new ways of doing things to replace the old.
Which of these people had the best idea about how children should be taught?
Which of the other two people had the better idea?
Considering again all three ideas‚ which would most other persons in _________ say had the better idea?
4 . Livestock Dying
man-nature: Item MN1
One time a man had a lot of Livestock. Most of them died off in different ways. People talked about this and said different things.
A (Subj) Some people said you just can't blame a man when things like this happen. There are so many things that can and do happen‚ and a man can do almost nothing to prevent such losses when they come. We all have to learn to take the bad with the good.
B (Over) Some people said that it was probably the man's own fault that he lost so many. He probably didn't use his head to prevent the losses. They said that it is usually the case that men who keep up on new ways of doing things‚ and really set themselves to it‚ almost always find a way to keep out of such trouble.
C (With) Some people said that it was probably because the man had not Lived his life right — had not done things in the right way to keep harmony between himself and the forces of nature (i.e.‚ the ways of nature like the rain‚ winds‚ snow‚ e t c.).
Which of these reasons do you think is most usually true?
Which of the other two reasons do you think is more true?
Which of all three reasons would most other persons in _______ think is usually true?
5. Expectations about Change
time: Item T2
(a. 20-40 Age Group)
Three young people were talking about what they thought their families would have one day as compared with their fathers and mothers.
They each said different things.
C (Fut) The first said: I expect‚ my family to be better off in the future than the family of my father and mother or relatives i f we work hard and plan right . Things in this country usually get better for people who really try.
B (Pres) The second one said: I don't know whether my family will be better off‚ the same‚ or worse off than the family of my father and mother or relatives. Things always go up and down even if people do work hard. So one can never really tell how things will be.
A (Past) The third one said: I expect my family to be about the same as the family of my father and mother or relatives. The best way is to work hard and plan ways to keep up things as they have been in the past.
Which of these people do you think had the best idea?
Which of the other two persons had the better idea?
Which of these three people would most other your age think had the best idea?
(b. 40-up Age Group)
Three older people were talking about what they thought their children would have when they were grown. Here i s what each one said.
C (Fut) One said: I really expect my children to have more than I have had if they work hard and plan right. There are always good chances for people who try.
B (Pres) The second one said: I don't know whether my children will be better off‚ worse off ‚ or just the same. Things always go up and down even if one works hard‚ so we can't really tell.
A (Past) The third one said: I expect my children to have just about the same as I have had or bring things back as they once were It is their job to work hard and find ways to keep things going as they have been In the past.
Which of these people do you think had the best idea?
Which of the other two persons had the better idea?
Which of these three people would most other _____ your age think had the best idea?
6. Facing Conditions
man-nature: Item MN2
There are different ways of thinking about how God (the gods) is (are) related to man and to weather and all other natural conditions which make the crops and animals Live or die. Here are three possible ways.
C (With) God (the gods) and people all work together all the time; whether the conditions which make the crops and animals grow are good or bad depends upon whether people themselves do all the proper things to keep themselves in harmony with their God (gods) and with the forces of nature.
B (Over) God (the gods) does (do) not directly use his (their) power to control all the conditions which affect the growth of crops or animals. It is up to the people themselves to figure out the ways conditions change and to try hard to find the ways of controlling them.
A (Subj) Just how God (the gods) will use his (their) power over all the conditions which affect the growth of crops and animals cannot be known by man. But it is useless for people to think they can change conditions very much for very long.
The best way is to take conditions as they come and do as well as one can.
Which of these ways of looking at things do you think is best?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better ?
Which of the three ways of looking at things would most other people in think is best?
7. Help in Misfortune
relational: Item R2
A man had a crop failure‚ or‚ let us say‚ had lost most of his sheep or cattle. He and his family had to have help from someone if they were going to get through the winter. There are different ways of getting help. Which of these three ways would be best?
B (Coll) Would it be best if he depended mostly on his brothers and sisters or other relatives all to help him out as much as each one could?
C (Ind) Would I t be best for him to try to raise the money on his own outside the community (his own people) from people who are neither relatives nor employers?
A (Lin) Would it be best for him to go to a boss or to an older important relative who is used to managing things in his group‚ and ask him to help out until things get better?
Which way of getting the help do you think would usually be best?
Which way of getting the help do you think is next best?
Which way do you think you yourself would really follow?
Which way do you think most other people in would think best?
8. Family Work Relations
relational: Item R3
I'm going to tell you about three different ways families can arrange work. These families are related and they Live close together.
C (Ind) In some groups (or communities) it is usually expected that each of the separate families (by which we mean just husband‚ wife‚ and children) will look after its own business separate from all others and not be responsible for the others.
B (Coll) In some groups (or communities) it is usually expected that the close relatives in the families will work together and talk over among themselves the way to take care of whatever problems come up. When a boss is needed they usually choose (get) one person‚ not necessarily the oldest able person‚ to manage things.
A (Lin) In some groups (or communities) it is usually expected that the families which are closely related to each other will work together and have the oldest able person (hermano mayor or father) be responsible for and take ch‎arge of most Important things.
Which of these ways do you think is usually best in most cases?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which of all the ways do you think most other persons in would think is usually best?
9. Choice of Delegate
relational: Item R4
A group like yours (community like yours) is to send a delegate — a representative — to a meeting away from here (this can be any sort of meeting). How will this delegate be chosen?
B (Coll) Is it best that a meeting be called and everyone discuss things until almost everyone agrees so that when a vote is taken almost all people would be agreed on the same person?
A (Lin) Is it best that the older‚ Important‚ leaders take the main responsibility for deciding who should represent the people since they are the ones who have had the long experience in such matters?
C (Ind) Is it best that a meeting be called‚ names be put up‚ a vote be taken‚ then send the man who gets the majority of votes even if there are many people who are still against this man Which of these ways of choosing Is usually best in cases like this?
Which of the other two ways is usually better?
Which would most other persons in say is usually best?
10. Use of Fields
man-nature: Item MN3
There were three men who had fields with crops (were farmers). The three men had quite different ways of planting and taking care of crops
C (With) One man put in his crops‚ worked hard‚ and also set himself to living in right and proper ways. He felt that it is the way a man works and tries to keep himself in harmony with the forces of nature that has the most effect on conditions and the way crops turn out.
A (Subj) One man put in his crops. Afterwards he worked on them sufficiently but did not do more than was necessary to keep them going along. He felt that it mainly depended on weather conditions how they would turn out‚ and that nothing extra that people do could change things much.
B (Over) One man put in his crops and then worked on them a lot of time and made use of all the new scientific ideas he could find out about. He felt that by doing this he would in most years prevent many of the effect s of bad conditions.
Which of these ways do you believe is usually best?
Which of the other two ways do you believe is better?
Which of the three ways would most other persons in _ think is best?
11. Philosophy of Life
time: Item T3
People often have very different ideas about what has gone before and what we can expect i n life. Here are three ways of thinking about these things.
B (Pres) Some people believe it best to give most attention to what is happening now in the present. They say that the past has gone and the future is much too uncertain to count on. Things do change‚ but it is sometimes for the better and sometimes for the worse‚ so in the long run it is about the same. These people believe the best way to Live is to keep those of the old ways that one can — or that one likes — but to be ready to accept the new ways which will help to make life easier and better as we Live from year to year.
A (Past) Some people think that the ways of the past (ways of the old people or traditional ways) were the most right and the best‚ and as changes come things get worse. These people think the best way to Live is to work hard to keep up the old ways and try to bring them back when they are lost.
C (Fut) Some people believe that it is almost always the ways of the future — the ways which are still to come—which will be best‚ and they say that even though there are sometimes small setbacks‚ change brings improvements in the long run. These people think the best way to Live is to look a long time ahead‚ work hard‚ and give up many things now so that the future will be better.
Which of these ways of looking at life do you think is best?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which of the three ways of looking at life do you think most other persons in would think is best?
12. Wage Work
relational: Item R5
There are three ways in which men who do not themselves hire others may work.
C (Ind) One way is working on one's own as an individual. In this case a man is pretty much his own boss. He decides most things himself‚ and how he gets along is his own business. He only has to take care of himself and he doesn't expect others to look out for him.
B (Coll) One way is working in a group of men where all the men work together without there being one main boss. Every man has something to say in the decisions that are made‚ and all the men can count on each other.
A (Lin) One way is working for an owner‚ a big boss‚ or a man who has been running things for a long time (a patron). In this case‚ the men do not take part in deciding how the business will be run‚ but they know they can depend on the boss to help them out in many ways.
Which of these ways is usually best for a man who does not hire others?
Which of the other two ways is better for a man who does not hire others Which of the three ways do you think most other persons in would think is best?
13. Belief in Control
man-nature: Item MN4
Three men from different areas were talking about the things that control the weather and other conditions. Here is what they each said.
A (Subj) One man said: My people have never controlled the rain‚ wind‚ and other natural conditions and probably never will. There have always been good years and bad years. That is the way it is‚ and if you are wise you will take it as it comes and do the best you can.
B (Over) The second man said: My people believe that it is man's job to find ways to overcome weather and other conditions Which of these ways of looking at life do you think is best?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which of the three ways of looking at life do you think most other persons in would think is best?
12. Wage Work
relational: Item R5
There are three ways in which men who do not themselves hire others may work.
C (Ind) One way is working on one's own as an individual. In this case a man is pretty much his own boss. He decides most things himself‚ and how he gets along is his own business. He only has to take care of himself and he doesn't expect others to look out for him.
B (Coll) One way is working in a group of men where all the men work together without there being one main boss. Every man has something to say in the decisions that are made‚ and all the men can count on each other.
A (Lin) One way is working for an owner‚ a big boss‚ or a man who has been running things for a long time (a patron). In this case‚ the men do not take part in deciding how the business will be run‚ but they know they can depend on the boss to help them out in many ways.
Which of these ways is usually best for a man who does not hire others?
Which of the other two ways is better for a man who does not hire others
Which of the three ways do you think most other persons in -‎--‎--‎- would think is best?
13. Belief in Control
man-nature: Item MN4
Three men from different areas were talking about the things that control the weather and other conditions. Here is what they each said.
A (Subj) One man said: My people have never controlled the rain‚ wind‚ and other natural conditions and probably never will. There have always been good years and bad years. That is the way it is‚ and if you are wise you will take it as it comes and do the best you can.
B (Over) The second man said: My people believe that it is man's job to find ways to overcome weather and other conditions just as they have overcome so many things. They believe they will one day succeed in doing this and may even overcome drought and floods.
C (With) The third man said: My people help conditions and keep things going by working to keep in close touch with all the forces which make the rain‚ the snow‚ and other conditions. It is when we do the right things — live in the proper way—and keep all that we have — the land‚ the stock‚ and the water — in good condition‚ that all goes along well.
Which of these men do you think had the best idea?
Which of the other two men do you think had the better idea?
Which of the three men do you think most other persons in would think had the best idea?
14. Ceremonial Innovation
time: Item T4
Some people in a community like your own saw that the religious ceremonies (the church services) were changing from what they used to be.
C (Tut) Some people were really pleased because of the changes in religious ceremonies. They felt that new ways are usually better than old ones‚ and they like to keep everything- even ceremonies-‎-moving ahead.
A (Past) Some people were unhappy because of the change. They felt that religious ceremonies should be kept exactly — in every way—as they had been in the past.
B (Pres)Some people felt that the old ways for religious ceremonies were best but you just can't hang on to them. It makes life easier just to accept some changes as they come along.
Which of these three said most nearly what you would believe is right?
Which of the other two do you think is more right?
Which of the three would most other say was most right?
15. Ways of Living
activity: Item A3
There were two people talking about how they liked to live. They had different ideas.
A (Doing) One said: What I care about most is accomplishing things — getting things done just as well or better than other people do them. I like to see results and think they are worth working for.
B (Being) The other said: What I care most about is to be left alone to think and act in the ways that best suit the way I really am. If I don't always get much done but can enjoy life as I go along‚ that is the best way.
Which of these two persons do you think has the better way of thinking?
Which of the two do you think you are more like?
Which do you think most other -‎--‎--‎-- would say had the better way of living?
16. Livestock inheritance
relational: Item R6
Some sons and daughters have been left some livestock (sheep or cattle) by a father or mother who has died. All these sons and daughters are grown up‚ and they Live near each other. There are three different ways they can run the livestock.
A (Lin) In some groups of people it is usually expected that the oldest able person (son or daughter‚ hermano mayor) will take ch‎arge of‚ or manage‚ all the stock held by himself and the other sons and daughters.
C (Ind) In some groups of people It is usually expected that each of the sons and daughters will prefer to take his or her own share of the stock and run his or her own business completely separate from all the others.
B (Coll)In some groups of people it is usually expected that all the sons and daughters will keep all their cattle and sheep together and work together and decide among themselves who is best able to take ch‎arge of things‚ not necessarily the oldest‚ when a boss is needed.
Which way do you think is usually best in most cases?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which of all three ways do you think most other persons in -‎--‎--‎--‎--‎--‎- would think is usually best?
17. Land in heritance
relational: Item R7
Now I want to ask a similar question concerning farm and grazing land instead of Livestock.
Some sons and daughters have been left some farm and grazing land by a father or mother who has died. All these sons and daughters are grown and Live near each other. There are three ways they can handle the property.
A(Lin) In some groups of people it is usually expected that the oldest able person (hermano mayor) will take ch‎arge of or manage the land for himself and all the other sons and daughters‚ even if they all share it.
C (Ind) In some groups of people it is usually expected that each son and daughter will take his own share of the land and do with it what he wants-‎-separate from all the others.
B (Coll) In some groups of people it is usually expected that all the sons and daughters will make use of the land together. When a boss is needed‚ they all get together and agree to choose someone of the group‚ not necessarily the oldest ‚ to take ch‎arge of things.
Which of these ways do you think is usually best in most cases?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which of all three ways do you think most other persons in -‎--‎--‎--‎--‎-- would think is usually best?
18. Care of Fields
activity: Item A4
There were two men‚ both farmers (men with fields). They lived differently.
B (Being) One man kept the crops growing all right but didn't work on them more than he had to. He wanted to have extra time to visit with friends‚ go on trips‚ and enjoy life. This was the way he liked best.
A (Doing) One man liked to work with his fields and was always putting in extra time keeping them clean of weeds and in fine condition. Because he did this extra work‚ he did not have much time left to be with friends‚ to go on trips‚ or to enjoy himself in other ways. But this was the way he really liked best.
Which kind of man do you believe it is better to be?
(For men only): Which kind of man are you really most like ?
Which kind of man would most other -‎--‎--‎--‎--‎--‎- think it better to be?
19. Length of Life
man-nature: Item MN5
Three men were talking about whether people themselves can do anything to make the Lives of men and women longer. Here is what each said.
B (Over) One said: It is already true that people like doctors and others are finding the way to add many years to the Lives of most men by discovering (finding) new medicines‚ by studying foods‚ and doing other such things as vaccinations. If people will pay attention to all these new things they will almost always Live longer.
A (Subj) The second one said: I really do not believe that there is much human beings themselves can do to make the Lives of men and women longer. It is my Belief that every person has a set time to Live‚ and when that time comes it just comes.
C (With)The third one said: I believe that there is a plan to life which works to keep all living things moving together‚ and if a man will learn to Live his whole life in accord with that plan‚ he will Live longer than other men.
Which of these three said most nearly what you would think is right?
Which of the other two ways i s more right?
Which of the three would most other persons in -‎--‎--‎--‎--‎- say was most right?
20. Water Allocation
time: Item T5
The government is going to help a community like yours to get more water by redrilling and cleaning out a community well. The government officials suggest that the community should have a plan for dividing the extra water‚ but don't say what kind of plan. Since the amount of extra water that may come in is not known‚ people feel differently about planning.
A (Past) Some say that whatever water comes in should be divided just about like water‚ in the past was always divided.
C (Fut) Others want to work out a really good plan ahead of time for dividing whatever water comes in.
B (Pres) Still others want to just wait until the water comes in before deciding on how it will be divided.
Which of these ways do you think is usually best in cases like this?
Which of the other two ways do you think is better?
Which of the three ways do you think most other persons in -‎--‎-- would think best?
21. Housework
activity: Item A5
There were two women talking about the way they liked to Live.
B (Being) One said that she was willing to work as hard as the average‚ but that she didn't like to spend a lot of time doing the kind of extra things in her house or taking up extra things outside like. Instead she liked to have time free to enjoy visiting with people — to go on trips — or to just talk with whoever was around.
A (Doing) The other woman said she liked best of all to find extra things to work on which would interest her — for example‚ . She said she was happiest when kept busy and was getting lots done.
Which of these ways do you think it is usually better for women to live?
(For women only): Which woman are you really more like?
Which way of life would most other -‎--‎--‎--‎--‎- think is best?
22. Nonworking Time
activity: Item A6
Two men spend their time in different ways when they have no work to do. (This means when they are not actually on the job.)
A (Doing) One man spends most of this time learning or trying out things which will help him in his work.
B (Being) One man spends most of this time talking‚ telling stories‚ singing‚ and so on with his friends.
Which of these men has the better way of living?
Which of these men do you think you are more like?
Which of these men would most other -‎--‎--‎--‎- think had the better way of living?
 
Activity (Being; Being-in becoming; Doing)‚ relational (Lineality; Collaterally; Individualism)‚ Time (Past‚ Present‚ Future)‚ man-nature (Subjugation to Nature‚ Harmony with Nature‚ ma‎stery over Nature)‚ human nature [mutable (Evil‚ Neutral‚ Mixture of Good & Evil‚ Good)‚ immutable (Evil‚ Neutral‚ Mixture of Good & Evil‚ Good)]
 

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