Anti-Semitism (A–S) Scale

Anti-Semitism (A–S) Scale
Levinson‚ & Sanford‚ 1944
 
Public Opinion Questionnaire A
1.    Jews seem to prefer the most luxurious‚ extravagant‚ and sensual way of living. (PO)
2.    The Jews must be considered a bad influence on Christian culture and civilization. (ST)
3.    In order to maintain a nice residential neighborhood it is best to prevent Jews from living in it. (A)
4.    A major fault of the Jews is their conceit‚ overbearing pride‚ and their idea that they are a chosen race. (PO)
5.    One trouble with Jewish businessmen is that they stick together and connive‚ so that a Gentile doesn’t have a fair chance in competition. (ST & I)
6.    Colleges should adopt a quota system by which they limit the number of Jews in fields which have too many Jews now. (A)
7.    No matter how Americanized a Jew may seem to be‚ there is always something basically Jewish underneath‚ a loyalty to Jewry and a manner that is never totally changed. (PO)
8.    Jewish power and control in money matters is far out of proportion to the number of Jews in the total population. (ST)
9.    A step toward solving the Jewish problem would be to prevent Jews from getting into superior‚ profitable positions in society‚ for a while at least. (A)
10.Districts containing many Jews always seem to be smelly‚ dirty‚ shabby‚ and unattractive. (PO)
11.There are too many Jews in the various federal agencies and bureaus in Washington‚ and they have too much control over our national policies. (T & I)
12.The Jewish problem is so general and deep that one often doubts that democratic methods can ever solve it. (A)
13.There are a few exceptions‚ but in general Jews are pretty much alike. (PO)
14.Jews tend to lower the general standard of living by their willingness to do the most menial work and to live under standards that are far below average. (ST)
15.It is wrong for Jews and Gentiles to intermarry. (A)
16.The Jews should not pry so much into Christian activities and organizations nor seek so much recognition and prestige from Christians. (PO & I)
17.Much resentment against Jews stems from their tending to keep apart and to exclude Gentiles from Jewish social life. (S)
18.It is best that Jews should have their own fraternities and sororities‚ since they have their own particular interests and activities which they can best engage in together‚ just as Christians get along best in all-Christian fraternities. (A)
19.One thing that has hindered the Jews from establishing their own nation is the fact that they really have no culture of their own; instead‚ they tend to copy the things that are important to the native citizens of whatever country they are in. (I)
20.The Jews should give up their un-Christian religion with all its strange customs (kosher diet‚ special holidays‚ etc.) and participate actively and sincerely in the Christian religion. (S)
21.It is sometimes all right to ban Jews from certain apartment houses. (A)
22.One big trouble with Jews is that they are never contented‚ but always try for the best jobs and the most money. (N)
23.Jews tend to remain a foreign element in American society‚ to preserve their old social standards and to resist the American way of life. (S)
24.Anyone who employs many people should be careful not to hire a large percentage of Jews. (A)
25.Jews go too far in hiding their Jewishness‚ especially such extremes as changing their names‚ straightening noses‚ and imitating Christian manners and customs. (I)
26.There is little doubt that Jewish pressure is largely responsible for the U. S. getting into the war with Germany (N)
Public Opinion Questionnaire S
1.    The Jews should make sincere efforts to rid themselves of their conspicous and irritating faults‚ if they really want to stop being persecuted. (PO)
2.    War shows up the fact that the Jews make sacrifices for their country. (ST)
3.    It would hurt the business of a large concern if it had too many Jewish employees. (A & I)
4.    There is something different and strange about Jews; one never knows what they are thinking or planning‚ nor what makes them tick. (PO)
5.    Jews may have moral standards that they apply in their dealings with each other‚ but with Christians they are unscrupulous‚ ruthless‚ and undependable. (ST)
6.    The best way to eliminate the Communist menace in this country is to control the Jewish element which guides it. (A)
7.    The trouble with letting Jews into a nice neighborhood is that they gradually give it a typical Jewish atmosphere. (PO & I)
8.    The Jew’s first loyalty is to Jewry rather than to his country. (ST)
9.    In order to handle the Jewish problem‚ Gentiles must meet fire with fire and use the same ruthless tactics with the Jews that the Jews use with the Gentiles. (A)
10.I can hardly imagine myself marrying a Jew. (PO)
11.Jews seem to have an aversion to plain hard work; they tend to be a parasitic element in society by finding easy‚ nonproductive jobs. (ST)
12.It is not wise for a Christian to be seen too much with Jews‚ as he might be taken for a Jew‚ or be looked down upon by his Christian friends. (A)
13.One general fault of Jews is their over aggressiveness‚ a strong tendency always to display their Jewish looks‚ manners‚ and breeding. (PO & S)
14.There seems to be some revolutionary streak in the Jewish make-up as shown by the fact that there are so many Jewish Communists and agitators. (ST)
15.One of the first steps to be taken in cleaning up the movies and generally improving the situation in Hollywood is to put an end to Jewish domination there. (A)
16.Jews should be more concerned with their personal appearance‚ and not be so dirty and smelly and unkempt. (PO)
17.The Jewish districts in most cities are results of the clannishness and stick-togetherness of Jews. (S)
18.Most hotels should deny admittance to Jews‚ as a general rule. (A)
19.The true Christian can never forgive the Jews for their crucifixion of Christ. (I)
20.Jewish millionaires may do a certain amount to help their own people‚ but little of their money goes into worthwhile American causes. (S)
21.Jewish leaders should encourage Jews to be more inconspicuous‚ to keep out of professions and activities already overcrowded with Jews‚ and to keep out of the public notice. (A)
22.There is little hope of correcting the racial defects of the Jews‚ since these defects are simply in their blood. (N)
23.The Jews keep too much to themselves‚ instead of taking the proper interest in community problems and good government. (S)
24.It would be to the best interests of all if the Jews would form their own nation and keep more to themselves. (A)
25.When Jews cr‎eate large funds for educational or scientific research (Rosenwald‚ Heller‚ etc.) it is mainly due to a desire for fame and public notice rather than a really sincere scientific interest. (I)
26.On the whole‚ the Jews have probably contributed less to American life than any other group. (N)
Short Form
a.    Anyone who employs many people should be careful not to hire a large percentage of Jews.(A)
b.    One trouble with Jewish businessmen is that they stick together and connive‚ so that a Gentile doesn't have a fair chance in competition.(ST & S)
c.    The Jewish districts in most cities are results of the clannishness and stick-togetherness of Jews.(S)
d.    Persecution of the Jews would be largely eliminated if the Jews would really make sincere efforts to rid themselves of their harmful andoffensive faults.(PO)
e.    Jewish leaders should encourage Jews to be more inconspicuous‚ to keep out of the professions and activities already overcrowded with Jews‚ andkeep out of the public notice.(A)
f.     I can hardly imagine myself marrying a Jew. (PO)
g.    The trouble with letting Jews in to a nice neighborhood is that they gradually give it a typically Jewish atmosphere.
h.    No matter how Americanized a Jew may seem to be‚ there is always something different and strange‚ something basically Jewish underneath. (PO)
i.      There may be a few exceptions‚ but‚ in general‚ Jews are pretty much alike. (PO)
j.     There are too many Jews in the various federal agencies and bureaus in Washington‚ and they have too much control‚ over our national policies. (ST & I)
Jews as personally offensive (PO)-12 items
Jews as socially threatening (ST)-10 items
Attitudes about what should be done to or against Jews (A) - 16 items
Jews as being too seclusive (S)-8 items
Jews as being too intrusive (I) - 8 items
Neutral (N) – 4 items
 
 
+3: strong support‚ agreement; +2: moderate support‚ agreement; +1: slight support‚ agreement; –1: slight opposition‚ disagreement; –2: moderate opposition‚ disagreement; –3: strong opposition‚ disagreement
 
 

Levinson‚ D. J.‚ Sanford‚ R. N. (1944) A scale for the measurement of anti-Semitism. Journal of Psychology‚ 17(2)‚ 339–370.