Lester, P. E. (1984). Development of an instrument to measure teacher job satisfaction. PhD dissertation, New York University.
Comments: The 77-item Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ) is based on the work of Maslow and Herzberg. The TJSQ has been translated into Spanish, French, Arabic, and Mandarin. It has been used mainly in doctoral dissertations over the last decade.
Sample: A random sample of 620 teachers from elementary, junior high school, and senior high schools in New York City, Westchester, Nassau, and Suffolk Counties (New York) participated.
Reliability: The alpha coefficient (Cronbach) for the entire scale is 0.93. Coefficients of internal consistency are 0.92 (supervision), 0.82 (colleagues and work itself), 0.83 (working conditions), 0.80 (pay), 0.73 (responsibility), 0.81 (advancement), 0.71 (security), and 0.74 (recognition). Coefficients for scales range from 0.71 (security) to 0.92 (supervision). The alpha coefficient for each factor, means, standard deviations, and alpha, if item deleted, are provided in tabular form.
Validity: Content validation was performed through a panel of judges reducing the original number of items from 120 to 77. Statements with less than 80 percent agreement were either rewritten or rejected. The items were edited into a form specifically geared to teachers in an educational setting. Vaguely defined words, words with double meanings, emotionally loaded words, double negatives, and unclear words were eliminated, resulting in clear, concise, and direct statements of no more than 20 words. Approximately 50 percent of the items were written in a positive form, and 50 percent in a negative form to avoid response set bias. The data were cross-validated using a split-sample technique. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis.
Factor Analysis: A nine-factor orthogonal varimax solution was accepted using criterion of eigenvalues greater than or equal to unity. The nine factors are: 14 items on supervision (19, 73, 47, 11, 27, 71, 52, 34, 65, 70, 14, 62, 6, and ; 10 items on colleagues (22, 57, 77, 17, 48, 35, 43, 63, 60, and 45); seven items on working conditions 64, 20, 40, 18, 31, 29, and 10); seven items on pay (53, 2, 72, 42, 67, 5, and 76); eight items on responsibility (75, 69, 74, 44, 24, 39, 21, and 61); nine items on work itself (30, 28, 51, 33, 8, 3, 54, 13, and 55); five items on advancement (59, 37, 1, 23, and 9); three items on security (25, 15, and 32); and three items on recognition (16, 7, and 58). The following eleven items had factor loadings below 0.30 (4, 12, 26, 36, 38, 41, 46, 49, 50, 66, and 68) and therefore, were not included in any further statistical analysis. They are filler items. Factor loading, communalities, item reversals, eigenvalues, etc., are reported.
Definitions of Factors: Supervision refers to supervisory style, which may be defined in terms of task-oriented behavior and person-oriented behavior. Task-oriented behavior requires direction and coordination of group activities to achieve the goals of the organization. Person-oriented behavior requires trust, respect, support, friendship, openness, and attempts to improve the environment. Colleagues are the teaching work group and the social aspects of the school setting. The teachers in the work group give and receive support and seek cooperation in the achievement of a common purpose or goal. The similarity of attitudes, the performance of jobs, the formation of personal relationships among fellow teachers, and an increase in self-esteem, are all aspects of social interaction. Working Conditions refer to the physical conditions of the work environment, as well as the overall aspects of the school organization as defined and communicated by its administrative policies. Pay refers to the annual income, which may serve as indicator of recognition and achievement, or of failure. Responsibility is the desire to be accountable for one’s own work, to help one’s students learn, and the opportunity to take part in policy or decision-making activities. Work Itself is the job of teaching or the tasks related to the job. It involves the freedom to institute innovative materials and to utilize one’s skills and abilities in designing one’s work (creativity) as well as the freedom to experiment and to influence or control what goes on in the job (autonomy). Advancement or promotion refers to a change in status or position, which may be equated with greater wages and power. Security refers to the school’s policies regarding tenure, seniority, layoffs, pension, retirement, and dismissal. Recognition involves the attention, appreciation, prestige, and esteem of supervisors, colleagues, students, and parents.
Data Analysis: The means and standard deviations for each of the nine factors of the TJSQ were analyzed by location (urban and suburban), size of district (small/large), county, school level, and school level within district. One-way analyses of variance were also performed with each of the personal and demographic variables and the nine factors of the TJSQ. The results of demographic analyses are provided.
Brown, K. A. (2009). Educators jump ship: A study of leadership style and teachers’ job satisfaction. PhD dissertation, Capella University.
Clark, M. (2006). Teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools in southeastern Georgia. PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi.
Dodson, C. K. (2005). The relationship between school effectiveness and teachers’ job satisfaction in North Mississippi schools. PhD dissertation, University of Mississippi.
Miles, W. L. (2010). Correlational study of leadership style and teacher job satisfaction in two Head Start programs. PhD dissertation, Capella University.
Thompson, D. G. (2008). Teacher job satisfaction and retention in a suburban Georgia school district. EdD dissertation, University of Phoenix.
White, B. J. (2004). Teacher job satisfaction: A comparative study of restructured and non restructured elementary schools in the Philadelphia Public Schools. EdD dissertation, Saint Joseph’s University.
Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire
1. Teaching provides me with an opportunity to advance professionally.
2. Teacher income is adequate for normal expenses.
3. Teaching provides an opportunity to use a variety of skills.
4. When instructions are inadequate, I do what I think is best.
5. Insufficient income keeps me from living the way I want to live.
6. My immediate supervisor turns one teacher against another.
7. No one tells me that I am a good teacher.
8. The work of a teacher consists of routine activities.
9. I am not getting ahead in my present teaching position.
10. Working conditions in my school can be improved.
11. I receive recognition from my immediate supervisor.
12. If I could earn what I earn now, I would take any job.
13. I do not have the freedom to make my own decisions.
14. My immediate supervisor offers suggestions to improve my teaching.
15. Teaching provides for a secure future.
16. I receive full recognition for my successful teaching.
17. I get along well with my colleagues.
18. The administration in my school does not clearly define its policies.
19. My immediate supervisor gives me assistance when I need help.
20. Working conditions in my school are comfortable.
21. Teaching provides me the opportunity to help my students learn.
22. I like the people with whom I work.
23. Teaching provides limited opportunities for advancement.
24. My students respect me as a teacher.
25. I am afraid of losing my teaching job.
26. Teaching involves too many clerical tasks.
27. My immediate supervisor does not back me up.
28. Teaching is very interesting work.
29. Working conditions in my school could not be worse.
30. Teaching discourages originality.
31. The administration in my school communicates its policies well.
32. I never feel secure in my teaching job.
33. Teaching does not provide me the chance to develop new methods.
34. My immediate supervisor treats everyone equitably.
35. My colleagues stimulate me to do better work.
36. My students come to class inadequately prepared.
37. Teaching provides an opportunity for promotion.
38. My immediate supervisor watches me closely.
39. I am responsible for planning my daily lessons.
40. Physical surroundings in my school are unpleasant.
41. I do not have the freedom to use my judgment.
42. I am well paid in proportion to my ability.
43. My colleagues are highly critical of one another.
44. I do have responsibility for my teaching.
45. My colleagues provide me with suggestions or feedback about my teaching.
46. Teaching provides me an opportunity to be my own boss.
47. My immediate supervisor provides assistance for improving instruction.
48. I do not get cooperation from the people I work with.
49. My immediate supervisor is not afraid to delegate work to others.
50. Behavior problems interfere with my teaching.
51. Teaching encourages me to be creative.
52. My immediate supervisor is not willing to listen to suggestions.
53. Teacher income is barely enough to live on.
54. I am indifferent toward teaching.
55. The work of a teacher is very pleasant.
56. I receive too many meaningless instructions from my immediate supervisor.
57. I dislike the people with whom I work.
58. I receive too little recognition.
59. Teaching provides a good opportunity for advancement.
60. My interests are similar to those of my colleagues.
61. I am not responsible for my actions.
62. My immediate supervisor makes available the material I need to do my best.
63. I have made lasting friendships among my colleagues.
64. Working conditions in my school are good.
65. My immediate supervisor makes me feel uncomfortable.
66. I prefer to have others assume responsibility.
67. Teacher income is less than I deserve.
68. I go out of my way to help my colleagues.
69. I try to be aware of the policies of my school.
70. When I teach a good lesson, my immediate supervisor notices.
71. My immediate supervisor explains what is expected of me.
72. Teaching provides me with financial security.
73. My immediate supervisor praises good teaching.
74. I am not interested in the policies of my school.
75. I get along well with my students.
76. Pay compares with similar jobs in other school districts.
77. My colleagues seem unreasonable to me.
Scoring: Strongly Disagree = 1; Disagree = 2; Neutral (neither disagree or agree) = 3; Agree = 4; and Strongly Agree = 5. Scoring is reversed for the following 22 unfavorable items (27, 52, 65, 6, 56, 57, 77, 48, 43, 40, 18, 74, 61, 30, 33, 54, 13, 23, 9, 25, 32, and 58).