Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES)

Description of Measure:

A 10-item scale that measures global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. The scale is believed to be uni-dimensional. All items are answered using a 4-point Likert scale format ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.


Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself. Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement.


1.    On the whole‚ I am satisfied with myself.
2.    At times I think I am no good at all.
3.    I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
4.    I am able to do things as well as most other people.
5.    I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
6.    I certainly feel useless at times.
7.    I feel that I’m a person of worth‚ at least on an equal plane with others.
8.    I wish I could have more respect for myself.
9.    All in all‚ I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
10.I take a positive attitude toward myself.
Strongly Agree‚ Agree‚ Disagree‚ Strongly Disagree
Items 2‚ 5‚ 6‚ 8‚ 9 are reverse scored.
Items 2, 5, 6, 8, 9 are reverse scored. Give “Strongly Disagree” 1 point, “Disagree” 2 points, “Agree” 3 points, and “Strongly Agree” 4 points. Sum scores for all ten items. Keep scores on a continuous scale. Higher scores indicate higher self-esteem.

Rosenberg‚ M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton‚ NJ: Princeton University Press.

Crandal‚ R. (1973). The measurement of self-esteem and related constructs‚ Pp. 80-82 in J.P.

Shapurian‚ R.‚ Hojat‚ M.‚ & Nayerahmadi‚ H. (1987). Psychometric ch‎aracteristics and dimensionality of a Persian version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Perceptual and Motor Skills‚ 65‚ 27-34.

Gray-Little‚ B.‚ Williams‚ V.S.L.‚ & Hancock‚ T. D. (1997). An item response theory analysis of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin‚ 23‚443-451.

Schmitt‚ David P.‚ Allik‚ Juri. (2005). Simultaneous Administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 Nations: Exploring the Universal and Culture-Specific Features of Global Self-Esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 89(4): 623– 642