Perceived Job Stressors scale


This measure (Perceived Job Stressors) was developed by Kanner, Kafry, and Pines (1978). Many job stress measures focus on the presence of negative conditions. However, work or life stress may also result from the cumulative absence of positive experiences in daily life. The daily hassles and problems may lead to tedium defined as emotional and attitudinal exhaustion (Kanner et al., 1978). This measure of perceived job stressors assesses both the lack of positive features in work and life, associated with tedium, and the presence of negative fea­tures, associated with stress. The measure asks employees to describe the frequency with which they experience 17 positive conditions and 14 nega­tive stressors. In Etzion et al. (1998), the measure was reduced to 23 items (11 positive and 12 negative). After reverse scoring, the 23 negative and pos­itive items were combined to form a single measure of job stress.


Coefficient alpha values ranged from .72 to .84 (Etzion et al., 1998; Melamed et al., 1991).


 Job stressors were positively correlated with burnout and negatively corre­lated with social support, perceived control at work, and quality of the job experience (Etzion et al., 1998; Melamed et al., 1991).


Kanner, A., Kafry, D., & Pines, A. (1978) Conspicuous in its absence: The lack of positive conditions as a source of stress. Journal of Human Stress, 4, 33-39. Items were taken from text, p. 36. Reprinted with permission of the Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation. Published by Heldref Publica­tions, 1319 Eighteenth St., NW, Washington, DC 20036-1802. Copyright © 1978.


Responses are obtained on a 7-point Likert-type scale where 1 = very infre­quently, 2 = infrequently, 3 = somewhat infrequently, 4 = neither, 5 = some­ what frequently, 6 = frequently, and 7 = very frequently. Respondents are.

asked to indicate how frequently they experience these life events.

Lack of positive work and life items:

  1. Variety
  2. Complexity
  3. Autonomy
  4. Significance
  5. Success
  6. Feedback
  7. Self-expression
  8. Self-actualization
  9. Policy influence
  10. Tangible rewards
  11. Appreciation
  12. Opportunity to take time off
  13. Personal relations
  14. Unconditional support
  15. Sharing
  16. Emotional reciprocity
  17. Comfortable environment

Negative work and life items:

  1. Negative consequences
  2. Demands for innovation.
  3. Under-load
  4. Overload
  5. Demands for proving oneself.
  6. Decision load
  7. Physical danger
  8. Environmental pressures
  9. Bureaucratic interference
  10. Administrative hassles
  11. Experience of guilt
  12. Emotional overextension
  13. Overextension of commitments and deadlines
  14. Conflicting demands from other people