Loneliness Scale (LS)

1. How often do you feel that you lack companionship?
2. How often do you feel left out?
3. How often do you feel isolated from others?
1 = Never‚ 2 = Hardly ever‚ 3 = Some of the time‚ 4 = Often‚ 5 = All of the time
This instrument can be found at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2394670/ &

Russell‚ D ‚ Peplau‚ L. A.. & Ferguson‚ M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment‚ 42‚ 290-294.

Hughes‚ Mary E.‚ Linda J. Waite‚ Louise C. Hawkley‚ and John T. Cacioppo. (2004). A Short Scale for Measuring Loneliness in Large Surveys: Results From Two Population-Based Studies. Research on Aging‚ 26(6)‚ 655-72.