*1. If a woman is raped while she is drunk‚ she is at least somewhat responsible for letting things get out of control.
*2. Although most women wouldn’t admit it‚ they generally find being physically forced into sex a real ‘‘turn-on.’’
3. When men rape‚ it is because of their strong desire for sex.
*4. If a woman is willing to ‘‘make out’’ with a guy‚ then it’s no big deal if he goes a little further and has sex.
5. Women who are caught having an illicit affair sometimes claim that it was rape.
6. Newspapers should not release the name of a rape victim to the public.
7. Many so-called rape victims are actually women who had sex and ‘‘changed their minds’’ afterwards.
*8. Many women secretly desire to be raped.
9. Rape mainly occurs on the ‘‘bad’’ side of town.
10. Usually‚ it is only women who do things like hang out in bars and sleep around that are raped.
*11. Most rapists are not caught by the police.
*12. If a woman doesn’t physically fight back‚ you can’t really say that it was rape.
*13. Men from nice middle-class homes almost never rape.
14. Rape isn’t as big a problem as some feminists would like people to think.
15. When women go around wearing low-cut tops or short skirts‚ they’re just asking for trouble.
*16. Rape accusations are often used as a way of getting back at men.
17. A rape probably didn’t happen if the woman has no bruises or marks.
18. Many women find being forced to have sex very arousing.
19. If a woman goes home with a man she doesn’t know‚ it is her own fault if she is raped.
20. Rapists are usually sexually frustrated individuals.
*21. All women should have access to self-defense classes.
*22. It is usually only women who dress suggestively that are raped.
23. Some women prefer to have sex forced on them so they don’t have to feel guilty about it.
*24. If the rapist doesn’t have a weapon‚ you really can’t call it a rape.
25. When a woman is a sexual tease‚ eventually she is going to get into trouble.
26. Being raped isn’t as bad as being mugged and beaten.
*27. Rape is unlikely to happen in the woman’s own familiar neighborhood.
28. In reality‚ women are almost never raped by their boyfriends.
*29. Women tend to exaggerate how much rape affects them.
30. When a man is very sexually aroused‚ he may not even realize that the woman is resisting.
*31. A lot of women lead a man on and then they cry rape.
*32. It is preferable that a female police officer conduct the questioning when a woman reports a rape.
33. A lot of times‚ women who claim they were raped just have emotional problems.
34. If a woman doesn’t physically resist sex—even when protesting verbally—it really can’t be considered rape.
35. Rape almost never happens in the woman’s own home.
*36. A woman who ‘‘teases’’ men deserves anything that might happen.
*37. When women are raped‚ it’s often because the way they said ‘‘no’’ was ambiguous.
38. If a woman isn’t a virgin‚ then it shouldn’t be a big deal if her date forces her to have sex.
*39. Men don’t usually intend to force sex on a woman‚ but sometimes they get too sexually carried away.
40. This society should devote more effort to preventing rape.
*41. A woman who dresses in skimpy clothes should not be surprised if a man tries to force her to have sex.
*42. Rape happens when a man’s sex drive gets out of control.
43. A woman who goes to the home or apartment of a man on the first date is implying that she wants to have sex.
44. Many women actually enjoy sex after the guy uses a little force.
45. If a woman claims to have been raped but has no bruises or scrapes‚ she probably shouldn’t be taken too seriously.
updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (IRMA)
(Payne‚ Lonsway‚ & Fitzgerald‚ 1999; McMahon & Farmer‚ 2011)
Subscale 1: She asked for it
1. If a girl is raped while she is drunk‚ she is at least somewhat responsible for letting things get out of hand.
2. When girls go to parties wearing slutty clothes‚ they are asking for trouble.
3. If a girl goes to a room alone with a guy at a party‚ it is her own fault if she is raped.
4. If a girl acts like a slut‚ eventually she is going to get into trouble.
5. When girls get raped‚ it’s often because the way they said “no” was unclear.
6. If a girl initiates kissing or hooking up‚ she should not be surprised if a guy assumes she wants to have sex.
Subscale 2: He didn’t mean to
7. When guys rape‚ it is usually because of their strong desire for sex.
8. Guys don’t usually intend to force sex on a girl‚ but sometimes they get too sexually carried away.
9. Rape happens when a guy’s sex drive goes out of control.
10. If a guy is drunk‚ he might rape someone unintentionally.
11. It shouldn’t be considered rape if a guy is drunk and didn’t realize what e was doing.
12. If both people are drunk‚ it can’t be rape.
Subscale 3: It wasn’t really rape
13. If a girl doesn’t physically resist sex—even if protesting verbally—it can’t be considered rape.
14. If a girl doesn’t physically fight back‚ you can’t really say it was rape.
15. A rape probably doesn’t happen if a girl doesn’t have any bruises or marks.
16. If the accused “rapist” doesn’t have a weapon‚ you really can’t call it rape.
17. If a girl doesn’t say “no” she can’t claim rape.
Subscale 4: She lied
18. A lot of times‚ girls who say they were raped agreed to have sex and then regret it.
19. Rape accusations are often used as a way of getting back at guys.
20. A lot of times‚ girls who say they were raped often led the guy on and then had regrets.
21. A lot of times‚ girls who claim they were raped have emotional problems.
22. Girls who are caught cheating on their boyfriends sometimes claim it was rape.
This instrument can be found on pages 25-27 of Measures for the assessment of dimensions of violence against women: A compendium Compiled by Michael Flood‚ available online at: http://www.svri.org/measures.pdf
A 7-point Likert scale‚ anchored by 1 (not at all agree ) and 7 (very much agree)
Payne‚ D. L.‚ Lonsway‚ K. A.‚ & Fitzgerald‚ L. F. (1999). Rape myth acceptance: Exploration of its structure and its measurement using the Illinois RapeMyth Acceptance Scale. Journal of Research in Personality‚ 33(1)‚ 27-68.