Identity Management Strategies Scales

Counterfeiting Items:
1. To appear heterosexual‚ I sometimes talk about fictional dates with members of the opposite sex.
2. I sometimes talk about opposite-sex relationships in my past‚ while I avoid mentioning more recent same-sex relationships.
3. I sometimes comment on‚ or display interest in‚ members of the opposite sex to give the impression that I am straight.
4. I have adjusted my level of participation in sports to appear heterosexual.
5. I make sure that I don’t behave the way people expect gays or lesbians to behave.
6. I sometimes laugh at “fag” or “dyke” jokes to fit in with my straight co-workers.
Avoiding Items:
7. I avoid co-workers who frequently discuss sexual matters.
8. I avoid situations (e.g.‚ long lunches‚ parties) where heterosexual co-workers are likely to ask me personal questions.
9. I let people know that I find personal questions to be inappropriate so that I am not faced with them.
10. I avoid personal questions by never asking others about their personal lives.
11. In order to keep my personal life private‚ I refrain from “mixing business with pleasure.”
12. I withdraw from conversations when the topic turns to things like dating or interpersonal relationships.
13. I let people think I am a “loner” so that they won’t questions my apparent lack of a relationship.
Integrating Items:
14. In my daily activities‚ I am open about my homosexuality whenever it comes up.
15. Most of my co-workers know that I am gay/lesbian.
16. Whenever I’m asked about being gay/lesbian‚ I always answer in an honest and matter-of-fact way.
17. It’s okay for my gay and lesbian friends to call me at work.
18. My co-workers know of my interest in gay and lesbian issues.
19. I look for opportunities to tell my co-workers that I am gay/lesbian.
20. When a policy or law is discriminatory against gay men and lesbians‚ I tell people what I think.
21. I let me co-workers know that I’m proud to be gay/lesbian.
22. I openly confront others when I hear a homophobic remark or joke.
23. I display objects (e.g.‚ photographs‚ magazines‚ symbols) which suggest that I am gay/lesbian.
Counterfeiting (alphas.76)‚ avoiding (alphas.86)‚ and integrating (alphas .89)
1=strongly disagree‚ 2=disagree‚ 3= slightly disagree‚ 4= uncertain‚ 5= slightly agree‚ 6=agree‚ 7= strongly agree

Button‚ S. B. (1996). Organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity: A multi-level examination. Unpublished doctoral dissertation‚ The Pennsylvania State University.

Button‚ S. B. (2001). Organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity: A cross-level examination. Journal of Applied Psychology‚ 86‚ 17–28.

Button‚ S. B. (2004). Identity management strategies utilized by lesbian and gay employees: A quantitative investigation. Group & Organization Management‚29‚ 470–494.

Lipka‚ Phillip‚ “Sexual Minorities in the Workplace: An Examination of Individual Differences That Affect Responses to Workplace Heterosexism” (2010). All Dissertations. Paper 539.