Everyday Discrimination Scale
David R. Williams
The Everyday Discrimination Scale
David R. Williams et al. 1997
In your day-to-day life‚ how often do any of the following things happen to you?
1. You are treated with less courtesy than other people are.
2. You are treated with less respect than other people are.
3. You receive poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores.
4. People act as if they think you are not smart.
5. People act as if they are afraid of you.
6. People act as if they think you are dishonest.
7. People act as if they’re better than you are.
8. You are called names or insulted.
9. You are threatened or harassed.
response categories: Almost every day‚ At least once a week‚ A few times a month‚ A few times a year‚ Less than once a year‚ Never
Follow-up Question (Asked only of those answering “A few times a year” or more frequently to at least one question.): What do you think is the main reason for these experiences? (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).
1. Your Ancestry or National Origins
2. Your Gender
3. Your Race
4. Your Age
5. Your Religion
6. Your Height
7. Your Weight
8. Some other Aspect of Your Physical Appearance
9. Your Sexual Orientation
10.Your Education or Income Level
OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER
1. A physical disability
2. Your shade of skin color (NSAL)
3. Your tribe (SASH)
Other (SPECIFY) _____________________________
Everyday Discrimination Scale (Short Version) alpha = .77
Sternthal‚ M.‚ et al‚ 2011
Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS)
In your day-to-day life how often have any of the following things happened to you?
1. You are treated with less courtesy or respect than other people.
2. You receive poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores.
3. People act as if they think you are not smart.
4. People act as if they are afraid of you.
5. You are threatened or harassed.
FOLLOW-UP QUESTION AT END OF SCALE AND RESPONSE CATEGORIES: The same as the original scale.
Nancy Krieger's Measure
Interview questions regarding response to unfair treatment and experience of racial or gender discrimination.
1. If you feel you’ve been treated unfairly‚ how do you usually respond--do you: Accept it as a fact of life? Try to do something about it?
2. And if you’ve been treated unfairly‚ do you: Talk to other people about it? Keep it to yourself?
3. Have you ever experienced discrimination‚ been prevented from doing something‚ or been hassled or made to feel inferior in any of the following five situations because you’re a woman? (Yes or No) At school; Getting a Job; At work; At home; Getting Medical Care
4. Have you ever experienced discrimination‚ been prevented from doing something‚ or been hassled or made to feel inferior‚ in any of the following six situations because of your race or color? (Yes or No) At school; Getting a job; At work; Getting housing; Getting medical care; From the police or in the courts.
Krieger N.‚ Smith K.‚ Naishadham D.‚ Hartman C.‚ Barbeau E.M. (2005). “Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.” Social Science & Medicine.; 61(7):1576-1596.
Sternthal‚ M.‚ Slopen‚ N.‚ Williams‚ D.R. (2011). “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review; 8(1): 95-113.
Taylor T.R.‚ Kamarck T.W.‚ Shiffman S. “Validation of the Detroit area study discrimination scale in a community sample of older African American adults: the Pittsburgh healthy heart project.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2004; 11:88–94.
Williams‚ D.R.‚ González‚ H.M.‚ Williams‚ S.‚ Mohammed‚ S.A.‚ Moomal‚ H‚ Stein‚ D.J. (2008). “Perceived Discrimination‚ Race and Health in South Africa: Findings from the South Africa Stress and Health Study.” Social Science and Medicine‚; 67: 441-452.
Williams‚ D.R.‚ Yu‚ Y.‚ Jackson‚ J.S.‚ and Anderson‚ N.B. (1997). “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status‚ Stress‚ and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology; 2(3):335-351.