Chinese Values Survey


This measure (Chinese Values Survey) was developed by the Chinese Culture Connection (1987), an international network of organizational researchers headed by Michael H. Bond. It was originally developed in Chinese, subsequently translated to English, then back-translated to Chinese, and the two versions compared for consistency. The measure assesses four categories of values related to work. These are integration, Confucian work dynamism, human-heartedness, and moral discipline. Integration focuses on the importance placed on social sta­bility and a sense of harmony with self, family, and associates. It includes values such as non competitiveness and tolerance of others. Confucian work dynamism focuses on the importance of preservation of the social hierarchy, protecting the status quo, having a sense of shame, and reciprocation of favors and gifts. Human-heartedness focuses on the importance of social awareness and needing to be kind and courteous to others, including values such as patience and sense of  right eousness. Moral discipline focuses on the importance of personal control, especially in a group setting, and in­cludes values such as moderation, carefulness, and having few desires. The measure has been used to compare values in different cultures (Ralston, Gustafson, Elsass, Cheung, & Terpstra, 1992).


Coefficient alpha values were .80 for integration, .77 for Confucian work dynamism, .81 for human-heartedness, and .55 for moral discipline (Pearson & Chong, 1997).


The dimensions of the Chinese Values Survey differentiated Chinese man­ agers from the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from Chinese managers from Hong Kong. Hong Kong managers scored significantly higher on the importance of integration, which is consistent with Hong Kong’s history of relative social stability, compared with the PRC where citizens have experi­ enced disruptions of social stability, such as the Cultural Revolution. Simi­ larly, Confucian work dynamism (CWD) differentiated PRC Chinese man­ agers (high importance on CWD) from Hong Kong Chinese managers (medium importance on CWD) and American managers (low importance on CWD). Human-heartedness differentiated American managers (high importance) from both PRC and Hong Kong Chinese managers (Ralston et al., 1992). Pearson and Chong (1997) found that job characteristics had less effect on the satisfaction of employees who placed greater importance on the collective aspects of the Chinese Values Survey, such as work group harmony and preservation of the status quo.


Ralston, D. A., Gustafson, D. J., Elsass, P. M., Cheung, F., & Terpstra, R.H. (1992). Eastern values: A comparison of managers in the United States, Hong Kong, and the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 664-671. Items were taken from Table 2, p. 667. Copyright© 1992 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.


Responses are obtained using a 9-point Likert-type scale where I= no impor­tance and 9 = extreme importance.

Integration items:

  1. Tolerance of others
  2. Harmony with others
  3. Solidarity with others
  4. Noncompetitiveness
  5. Trustworthiness
  6. Contentedness
  7. Being conservative
  8. A close, intimate friend
  9. Filial piety
  10. Patriotism
  11. Chastity in women

Confucian work dynamism items:

  1. Ordering relationships by status and observing order
  2. Thrift
  3. Persistence (perseverance)
  4. Having a sense of shame
  5. Reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts
  6. Personal steadiness
  7. Protecting your face
  8. Respect for tradition

Human-heartedness items:

  1. Kindness (forgiveness, compassion)
  2. Sense of righteousness
  3. Patience
  4. Courtesy

Moral discipline items:

  1. Moderation, following the middle way
  2. Keeping oneself disinterested and pure
  3. Adaptability
  4. Prudence (carefulness)
  5. Having few desires

Remaining items that did not load on the four factors:

  1. Industry (working hard)
  2. Humbleness
  3. Loyalty to superior
  4. Observation of rites and social rituals
  5. Knowledge (education)
  6. Self-cultivation
  7. Benevolent authority
  8. Resistance to corruption
  9. Sincerity
  10. Repayment of both the good or the evil that another person has caused you
  11. A sense of cultural superiority
  12. Wealth

This content is licensed under a CC-BY license. The CC-BY licenses grant rights of use the scales in your studies (the measurement instrument and its documentation), but do not replace copyright. This remains with the copyright holder, and you have to cite us as the source.

Mohammed Looti, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCALES (2023) Chinese Values Survey. Retrieved from DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31575.96163