Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS)

Background:

The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) was developed and tested with 200 male subjects, two thirds of whom were taking insulin treatment with an mean age of 58 years. All subjects provided blood for routine monitoring of HbA1c, half the subjects completed the ADS as well as five other self-report measures, and the other half completed the ADS on three time points over the course of one week. No significant difference was observed between ADS scores for insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent subjects.
The ADS has been used in studies parsing the effects of family environment (Trief et al. 1998) and work environment (Trief et al. 1999) on glycemic control and psychosocial adaptation in adults with diabetes.

Psychometrics:

The psychometric properties of the ADS are examined in Carey et al. (1991).

Author of Tool:

Carey MP, Jorgensen RS, Weinstock RS, Sprafkin RP, Lantinga LJ, Carnrike CL Jr, Baker MT, Meisler AW

Key references:

Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., Weinstock, R. S., Sprafkin, R. P., Lantinga, L. J., Carnrike, C. L. M., Jr., Baker, M. T., & Meisler, A. W. (1991). Reliability and validity of the appraisal of diabetes scale. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 43-51.

Garratt, A.M., L. Schmidt, and R. Fitzpatrick (2002) Patient-assessed health outcome measures for diabetes: a structured review. Diabetic Med., 19, 1-11.

Trief, P.M., W. Grant, K. Elbert, and R.S. Weinstock (1998) Family environment, glycemic control, and the psychosocial adaptation of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 21, 241-245.

Trief, P.M., C. Aquilino, K. Paradies, and R.S. Weinstock (1999) Impact of the work environment on glycemic control and adaptation to diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 569-574.

Primary use / Purpose:

The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) is a 7-item self-report scale assessing the individual’s appraisal of his or her diabetes. Respondents rate each statement on a 5 point Likert scale. The scale’s author state that the ADS can be incisive as a relatively quick (5 minute) screening tool to examine a patient’s adjustment to diabetes or risk for noncompliance with a care regimen. The test is easily administered (written or oral form) and is simple to score and interpret. The smaller the total score, the more positive the appraisal strategy. Thus, lower scores are better.

Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS)

People differ in their thoughts and feelings about having diabetes. We would like to know how you feel about having diabetes. Therefore, please circle the answer to each question which is closest to the way you feel. Please give you honest feelings

we are interested in how you feel, not what your doctor or family may think.

  1. How upsetting is having diabetes for you?
12345
Not atSlightlyModeratelyVeryExtremely
allupsettingupsettingupsettingupsetting
  1. How much control over your diabetes do you have?
12345
None atSlightModerateLargeTotal
allamountamountamountamount
  1. How much uncertainty do you currently experience in your life as a result of being diabetic?
12345
None atSlightModerateLargeExtremely
allamountamountamountLarge
amount
  1. How likely is your diabetes to worsen over the next several years?

(Try to give an estimate based on your personal feeling rather than based on a rational judgment.)

12345
Not likelySlightlyModeratelyVeryExtremely
at alllikelylikelylikelylikely
  1. Do you believe that achieving good diabetic control is due to your efforts as compared to factors which are beyond your control?
12345
TotallyMostlyPartlyMostlyTotally
becausebecausebecausebecausebecause
of meof meof me andof otherof other
partlyfactorsfactors
because of
other factors
  1. How effective are you in coping with your diabetes?
12345
Not atSlightlyModeratelyVeryExtremely
alleffectiveeffectiveeffectiveeffective
  1. To what degree does your diabetes get in the way of your developing life goals?
12345
Not atSlightModerateLargeExtremely
allamountamountamountLarge
amount

Scoring the ADS is easy:

  1. Reverse score items # 2 and

ADS2R = 5 - ADS2 ADS6R = 5 - ADS6

  1. Then sum all items, using the reversed scored items 2 and

Total score = ADS1 + ADSR2 + ADS3 + ADS4 + ADS5 + ADSR6 + ADS7

There is no manual.

Interpretation is straightforward: The smaller the total score, the more positive the appraisal strategy. Thus, lower scores are better.

Citation:

Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., Weinstock, R. S., Sprafkin, R. P., Lantinga, L. J., Carnrike, C. L. M., Jr., Baker, M. T., & Meisler, A. W. (1991). Reliability and validity of the appraisal of diabetes scale. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 43-51.

Michael P. Carey, PhD

Director, Centers for Behavioral & Preventive Medicine Professor, Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior (Medicine)

Professor, Behavioral and Social Sciences (Public Health) Brown University

Coro Building, Suite 314 One Hoppin Street Providence, RI 02903 [email protected]

B.糖尿病をかかえていることについての人々の考え方や感じ方は異なります。糖尿病をかかえていること  について、あなたがどのように感じているかを教えてください。そのために、あなたの感じ方に最も近い各質                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        問の答えに○をつけてください。正直な気持ちで答えてください―あなたの医師またはご家族が考えるであ ろうことではなく、あなたがどう感じるかを示してください。

1. あなたにとって糖尿病をかかえることはどのくらい動揺することですか?

1                             2                      3                        4                      5

まったく

動揺しない

わずかに

動揺する

まあまあ

動揺する

とても

動揺する

かなり

動揺する

 

  1. あなたは自分の糖尿病をどのくらいコントロールできますか?

1                          2                      3                        4                      5

まったく

していない

わずかに

している

まあまあ

している

たくさん

している

完全に

している

まったく

していない

わずかに

している

まあまあ

している

たくさん

している

かなりたくさん

している

 

  • 糖尿病である結果、あなたは現在どのくらいの不安を自分の人生で経験していますか? 1 2 3                       4                      5
  1. あなたの糖尿病は今後数年間にどのくらい悪化しそうですか?(学問的考えよりも、感情に基づいて推定してみてください。)

4                       2                       3                       4                      5

まったく

しそうにない

わずかに

しそうである

まあまあ

しそうである

とても

しそうである

かなり

しそうである

  1. 良好な糖尿病のコントロールを得ることは、あなたの努力によるものか、あるいは自分のコント ロールできないことによると信じていますか? (自分でコントロールできないこととは周りの環境や家族の影響などのことです。)

5                       2                       3                       4                      5

完全に

自分の努力による

だいたい 自分の努力に

よる

一部は

自分の努力、一部はその他の要因による

ほとんど

その他の要因による

完全に

その他の要因による

  1. あなたは自分の糖尿病への対処にあたり、どのくらい効果的だと思いますか?

6                       2                        3                       4                     5

まったく

効果的でない

ほとんど

効果的でない

まあまあ

効果的である

とても

効果的である

かなり

効果的である

  1. あなたの糖尿病はどの程度、自分の人生の目標を立てる妨げになっていますか?

7                       2                         3                       4                      5

まったく

妨げていない

わずかに

妨げている

まあまあ

妨げている

とても

妨げている

かなり

妨げている