1. Just concentrated on what I had to do next – the next step.
2. I tried to analyze the problem in order to understand it better.
3. Turned to work or substitute activity to take my mind off things.
4. I felt that time would make a difference – the only thing to do was to wait.
5. Bargained or compromised to get something positive from the situation.
6. I did something which I didn’t think would work‚ but at least I was doing something.
7. Tried to get the person responsible to change his or her mind.
8. Talked to someone to find out more about the situation.
9. Criticized or lectured myself.
10.Tried not to burn my bridges‚ but leave things open somewhat.
11.Hoped a miracle would happen.
12.Went along with fate; sometimes I just have bad luck.
13.Went on as if nothing had happened.
14.I tried to keep my feelings to myself.
15.Looked for the silver lining‚ so to speak; tried to look on the bright side of things.
16.Slept more than usual.
17.I expressed anger to the person(s) who caused the problem.
18.Accepted sympathy and understanding from someone.
19.I told myself things that helped me to feel better.
20.I was inspired to do something creative.
21.Tried to forget the whole thing.
22.I got professional help.
23.Changed or grew as a person in a good way.
24.I waited to see what would happen before doing anything.
25.I apologized or did something to make up.
26.I made a plan of action and followed it.
27.I accepted the next best thing to what I wanted.
28.I let my feelings out somehow.
29.Realized I brought the problem on myself.
30.I came out of the experience better than when I went in.
31.Talked to someone who could do something concrete about the problem.
32.Got away from it for a while; tried to rest or take a vacation.
33.Tried to make myself feel better by eating‚ drinking‚ smoking‚ using drugs or medication‚ etc.
34.Took a big chance or did something very risky.
35.I tried not to act too hastily or follow my first hunch.
36.Found new faith.
37.Maintained my pride and kept a stiff upper lip.
38.Rediscovered what is important in life.
39.Changed something so things would turn out all right.
40.Avoided being with people in general.
41.Didn’t let it get to me; refused to think too much about it.
42.I asked a relative or friend I respected for advice.
43.Kept others from knowing how bad things were.
44.Made light of the situation; refused to get too serious about it.
45.Talked to someone about how I was feeling.
46.Stood my ground and fought for what I wanted.
47.Took it out on other people.
48.Drew on my past experiences; I was in a similar situation before.
49.I knew what had to be done‚ so I doubled my efforts to make things work.
50.Refused to believe that it had happened.
51.I made a promise to myself that things would be different next time.
52.Came up with a couple of different solutions to the problem.
53.Accepted it‚ since nothing could be done.
54.I tried to keep my feelings from interfering with other things too much.
55.Wished that I could change what had happened or how I felt.
56.I changed something about myself.
57.I daydreamed or imagined a better time or place than the one I was in.
58.Wished that the situation would go away or somehow be over with.
59.Had fantasies or wishes about how things might turn out.
61.I prepared myself for the worst.
62.I went over in my mind what I would say or do.
63.I thought about how a person I admire would handle this situation and used that as a model.
64.I tried to see things from the other person’s point of view.
65.I reminded myself how much worse things could be.
66.I jogged or exercised.
Student Sample: Problem-focused coping (alpha = .88)‚ Wishful thinking (alpha = .86)‚ Detachment (alpha = .74)‚ Seeking social support (alpha = .82)‚ Focusing on the positive (alpha = .70)‚ Self-blame (alpha = .76)‚ Tension reduction (alpha = .59)‚ Keep to self (alpha = .65)
Community Sample: Confrontive coping (alpha = .70)‚ Distancing (alpha = .61)‚ Self-controlling (alpha = .70)‚ Seeking social support (alpha = .76)‚ Accepting responsibility (alpha = .66)‚ Escape-Avoidance (alpha = .72)‚ Planful problem-solving (alpha = .68)‚ Positive reappraisal (alpha = .79)‚
0=Not Used‚ 1=Used Somewhat ‚ 2=Used Quite A Bit ‚ 3=Used A great deal
Student Sample: Problem-focused coping (2‚ 26‚ 35‚ 39‚ 46‚ 48‚ 49‚ 52‚ 54‚ 62‚ and 64)‚ Wishful thinking (11‚ 55‚ 57‚ 58‚ and 59)‚ Detachment (4‚ 12‚ 13‚ 21‚ 24‚ and 53)‚ Seeking social support (8‚ 18‚ 28‚ 31‚ 42‚ 45‚ and 60)‚ Focusing on the positive (15‚ 20‚ 23‚ and 38)‚ Self-blame (9‚ 29‚ and 51)‚ Tension reduction (32‚ 33‚ and 66)‚ Keep to self (14‚ 40‚ and 43)
Community Sample: Confrontive coping (6‚ 7‚ 17‚ 28‚ 34‚ and 46)‚ Distancing (12‚ 13‚ 15‚ 21‚ 41‚ and 44)‚ Self-controlling (10‚ 14‚ 35‚ 43‚ 54‚ 63‚ and 64)‚ Seeking social support (8‚ 18‚ 22‚ 31‚ 42‚ and 45)‚ Accepting responsibility (9‚ 25‚ 29‚ and 51)‚ Escape-Avoidance (11‚ 16‚ 33‚ 40‚ 47‚ 50‚ 58‚ and 59)‚ Planful problem-solving (1‚ 26‚ 39‚ 48‚ 49‚ and 52)‚ Positive reappraisal (20‚ 23‚ 30‚ 36‚ 38‚ 56‚ and 60)
Folkman‚ S. & Lazarus‚ R. S. (1980). An Analysis of Coping in a Middle-Aged Community Sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior‚ 21(3)‚ 219-239
Folkman‚ S. & Lazarus‚ R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 48‚ 150-170.
Folkman‚ S.‚ Lazarus‚ R. S.‚ Dunkel-Schetter‚ C.‚ DeLongis‚ A.‚ & Gruen‚ R. (1986). The dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal‚ coping and encounter outcomes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 50‚ 992-1003.