WAY 1: In this "design for living" the individual actively participates in the social Life of his community‚ not to change it primarily‚ but to understand‚ appreciate‚ and preserve the best that man has attained. Excessive desires should be avoided and moderation sought. One wants the good things of Life but in an orderly way. Life is to have clarity‚ balance‚ refinement‚ control . Vulgarity‚ great enthusiasm‚ irrational behavior‚ impatience‚ indulgence are to be avoided‚ Friendship is to be esteemed but not easy intimacy with many people. Life is to have discipline‚ intelligibility‚ good manners‚ predictability. Social changes are to be made slowly and carefully‚ so that what has been achieved in human culture is not lost. The individual should be active physically and socially‚ but not in a hectic or radical way. Restraint and intelligence should give order to an active Life.
WAY 2: The individual should for the most part "go it alone‚" assuring himself of privacy in living quarters‚ having much time to himself‚ attempting to control his own Life. One should stress self - sufficiency‚ reflection and meditation‚ knowledge of himself. The direction of interest should be away from intimate associations with social groups‚ and away from the physical manipulation of objects or attempts at control of the physical environment. One should aim to simplify one's external Life‚ to moderate those desires whose satisfaction is dependent upon physical and social forces outside of oneself‚ and to concentrate attention upon the refinement‚ clarification‚ and self-direction of oneself. Not much can be done or is to be gained by "living outwardly." One must avoid dependence upon persons or things; the center of Life should be found with in oneself.
WAY 3: This way of Life makes central the sympathetic concern for other persons. Affection should be the main thing in Life‚ affection that is free from all traces of the imposition of oneself upon others or of using others for one's own purposes. Greed in possessions‚ emphasis on sexual passion‚ the search for power over persons and things‚ excessive emphasis upon intellect‚ and undue concern for oneself are to be avoided. For these things hinder the sympathetic love among persons which alone gives significance to Life. I f we are aggressive we block our receptivity to the personal forces upon which we are dependent for genuine personal growth. One should accordingly purify oneself‚ restrain one's self-assertiveness‚ and become receptive‚ appreciative‚ and helpful with respect to other persons.
WAY 4: Life is something to be enjoyed—sensuously enjoyed‚ enjoyed with relish and abandonment. The aim in Life should not be to control the course of the world or society or the live s of others‚ but to be open and receptive to things and persons‚ and to delight in them. Life is more a festival than a workshop or a school for moral discipline. To let oneself go‚ to let things and persons affect oneself‚ is .more important than to do— o r to do good. Such enjoyment‚ however‚ requires that one be self-centered enough to be keenly aware of what is happening and free for new happenings. So one should avoid entanglements‚ should not be too dependent on particular people or things‚ should not be self-sacrificing; one should be alone a lot‚ should have time for meditation and awareness of oneself. Solitude and sociality together are both necessary in the good Life .
WAY 5: A person should not hold on to himself‚ withdraw from people‚ keep aloof and self-centered. Rather merge oneself with a social group‚ enjoy cooperation and companionship‚ join with others in resolute activity for the realization of common goals. Persons are social and persons are active; Life should merge energetic group activity and cooperative group enjoyment. Meditation‚ restraint‚ concern for one's self- sufficiency‚ abstract intellectuality‚ solitude‚ stress on one's possessions all cut the roots which bind persons together. One should live outwardly with gusto‚ enjoying the good things of Life‚ working with others to secure the things which make possible a pleasant and energetic social Life. Those who oppose this ideal are not to be dealt with too tenderly. Life can't be too fastidious.
WAY 6: Life continuously tends to stagnate‚ to become "comfortable‚" to become sickled o'er with the pale cast of thought. Against these tendencies‚ a person must stress the need of constant activity — physical action‚ adventure‚ the realistic solution of specific problems as they appear‚ the improvement of techniques for controlling the world and society. Man's future depends primarily on what he does‚ not on what he feels or on his speculations. New problems constantly arise and always will arise. Improvements must always be made if man is to progress. We can't just follow the past or dream of what the future might be. We have to work resolutely and continually if control is to be gained over the forces which threaten us. Man should rely on technical advances made possible by scientific knowledge. He should find his goal in the solution of his problems. The good is the enemy of the better.
WAY 7: We should at various times and in various ways accept something from all other paths of Life‚ but give no one our exclusive allegiance. At one moment one of them is the more appropriate; at another moment another is the most appropriate. Life should contain enjoyment and action and contemplation in about equal amounts. When either is carried to extremes we lose something important for our Life. So we must cultivate flexibility‚ admit diversity in ourselves‚ accept the tension which this diversity produces‚ find a place for detachment in the midst of enjoyment and activity. The goal of Life is found in the dynamic integration of enjoyment‚ action‚ and contemplation‚ and so in the dynamic interaction of the various paths of Life. One should use all of them in building a Life‚ and no one alone.
WAY 8: Enjoyment should be the keynote of Life. Not the hectic search for intense and exciting pleasures‚ but the enjoyment of the simple and easily obtainable pleasures: the pleasures of just existing‚ of savory food‚ of comfortable surroundings‚ of talking with friends‚ of rest and relaxation. A home that is warm and comfortable‚ chairs and a bed that are soft‚ a kitchen well stocked with food‚ a door open to the entrance of friends - - this is the place to live. Body at ease‚ relaxed‚ calm in its movements‚ not hurried‚ breath slow‚ willing to nod and rest‚ grateful to the world that is its food--so should the body be. Driving ambition and the fanaticism of ascetic ideals are the signs of discontented people who have lost the capacity to float in the stream of simple‚ care free‚ wholesome enjoyment.
WAY 9: Receptivity should be the keynote of Life. The good things come of their own accord‚ and come unsought. They cannot be found by resolute action. They cannot be found in the indulgence of the sensuous desires of the body. They cannot be gathered by participation in the turmoil of social Life. They cannot be given to others by attempts to be helpful. They cannot be garnered by hard thinking. Rather do they come unsought when the bars of the self are down. When the self has ceased to make demands and waits in quiet receptivity‚ it becomes open to the powers which nourish it and work through it; and sustained by these powers it knows joy and peace. To sit alone under the trees and the sky‚ open to nature's voices‚ calm and receptive‚ then can the wisdom from without come with in.
WAY 10: Self - control should be the keynote of Life. Not the easy self - control which retreats from the world‚ but the vigilant‚ stern‚ manly control of a self which live s in the world‚ and knows the strength of the world and the limits of human power. The good Life is rationally directed and holds firm to high ideals. It is not bent by the seductive voices of comfort and desire. It does not expect social utopias‚ It is distrustful of final victories. Too much cannot be expected. Yet one can with vigilance hold firm the reins to his self‚ control his unruly impulses‚ understand his place in the world‚ guide his actions by reason‚ maintain his self-reliant independence. And in this way‚ though he finally perish‚ man can deep his human dignity and respect‚ and die with cosmic good manners.
WAY 11: The contemplative life is the good life. The external is no fit habitat for man. It is too big‚ too cold‚ too pressing. Rather It is the Life turned inward that Is rewarding. The rich internal world of ideals‚ of sensitive feelings‚ of reverie‚ of self-knowledge is man's true home. By the cultivation of the self within‚ man alone becomes human. Only then does there arise deep sympathy with all that lives‚ an understanding of the suffering inherent in Life‚ a realization of the futility of aggressive action‚ the attainment of contemplative joy. Conceit then falls away and austerity is dissolved. In giving up the world one finds the larger and finer sea of the inner self.
WAY 12: The use of the body's energy is the secret of a rewarding Life. The hands need material to make into something: lumber and stone for building‚ food to harvest‚ clay to mold. The muscles are a live to joy only in action‚ in climbing‚ running‚ skiing and the like. Life finds its zest in overcoming‚ dominating‚ conquering some obstacle. It is the active deed which is satisfying‚ the deed adequate to the present‚ the daring and adventuresome deed. Not in cautious foresight‚ not in relaxed ease does Life attain completion. Outward energetic action‚ the excitement of power in the tangible present - - this is the way to live .
WAY 13: A person should let himself be used. Used by other persons in their growth‚ used by the great objective purposes in the universe which silently and irresistibly achieve their goal. For persons and the world's purposes are dependable at heart‚ and can be trusted. One should be humble‚ constant‚ faithful‚ uninsistent. Grateful for the affection and protection which one needs‚ but undemanding. Close to persons and to nature‚ and secure because close. Nourishing the good by devotion and sustained by the good because of devotion. One should be a serene‚ confident‚ quiet vessel and instrument of the great dependable powers which move to their fulfillment.
Instructions for ranking your preferences: Rank the thirteen ways to live in the order you prefer them‚ putting first the number of the way to live you like the best‚ then the number of the way you like next best‚ and so on down to the number of the way to live you like the least:
Final Word: If you can formulate a way to live you would like better than any of the thirteen alternatives‚ please do so....
1. preserve the best that man has attained
2. cultivate independence of persons and things
3. show sympathetic concern for others
4. experience festivity and solitude in alternation
5. act and enjoy Life through group participation
6. constantly master changing conditions.
7. integrate action ‚ enjoyment and contemplation
8. live with wholesome‚ care free enjoyment
9. wait in quiet receptivity
10.control the self stoically
11.meditate on the inner Life
12.chance adventuresome deeds
13.obey the cosmic purposes
social restraint and self-control (positive loadings on ways 1 and 10; negative‚ on way 4)‚ enjoyment and progress in action (positive loadings on ways 12‚ 5‚ and 6;negative‚ on way 2)‚ withdrawal and self-sufficiency (positiveloadings on ways 11 and 2; negative‚ on way 5)‚ receptivity andsympathetic concern (positive loadings on ways 13 and 9) and self-indulgence or sensuous enjoyment (positive loadings on ways 8 and 4; negative‚ on way 13).
7 I like it very much
6 I like it quite a lot
5 I like it slightly
4 I am in different to it
3 I dislike it slightly
2 I dislike it quite a lot
1 I dislike it very much
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Morris‚ C. (1956). Paths of Life. New York: Harper‚ 1942; 2nd edition‚ New York: Braziller.
Morris‚ C. (1956). Varieties of human value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jones‚ L. and Morris‚ C. (1956). Relations of temperament to the choice of values‚ Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology‚ 53‚ 346-349.
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Robinson‚ John P.‚ Shaver‚ Phillip R. (1969). Measures of Political Attitudes. Institute for Social Research‚ University of Michigan/. Ann Arbor‚ Michigan