Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)

concept of work engagement

Work engagement is the assumed opposite of burnout. Contrary to those who suffer from burnout, engaged employees have a sense of energetic and effective connection with their work activities and they see themselves as able to deal well with the demands of their job. Two schools of thought exist on the relationship between work engagement and burnout. The first approach of Maslach and Leiter (1997) assumes that engagement and burnout constitute the opposite poles of a continuum of work related well-being, with burnout representing the negative pole and engagement the positive pole. Because Maslach and Leiter (1997) define burnout in terms of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, it follows that engagement is characterized by energy, involvement and efficacy. By definition, these three aspects of engagement constitute the opposites of the three corresponding aspects of burnout. In other words, according to Maslach and Leiter (1997) the opposite scoring pattern on the three aspects of burnout – as measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach, Jackson & Leiter, 1996) – implies work engagement. This means that low scores on the exhaustion- and cynicism-scales and a high score on the professional efficacy scale of the MBI is indicative of engagement.

However, the fact that burnout and engagement are assessed by the same questionnaire has at least two important negative consequences. First, it is not plausible to expect that both concepts are perfectly negatively correlated. That is, when an employee is not burned-out, this doesn’t necessarily mean that he or she is engaged in his or her work. Reversibly, when an employee is low on engagement, this does not mean that he or she is burned-out. Secondly, the relationship between both constructs cannot be empirically studied when they are measured with the same questionnaire. Thus, for instance, both concepts cannot be included simultaneously in one model in order to study their concurrent validity.

For this reason we define burnout and work engagement are two distinct concepts that should be assessed independently (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2001). Although employees will experience work engagement and burnout as being opposite psychological states, whereby the former has a positive quality and the latter a negative quality, both need to be considered as principally independent of each other. This means that, at least theoretically, an employee who is not burned-out may score high or low on engagement, whereas an engaged employee may score high or low on burnout. In practice, however, it is likely that burnout and engagement are substantively negatively correlated. In contrast to Maslach and Leiter’s (1997) approach, our approach enables the assessment of the strength of the association between work engagement and burnout since different instruments assess both independently. It is possible to include both constructs simultaneously in one analysis, for instance, to investigate whether burnout or engagement explains additional unique variance in a particular variable after the opposite variable has been controlled for.

Work engagement is defined as follows (see also Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá & Bakker, 2001):

‘Engagement is a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Rather than a momentary and specific state, engagement refers to a more persistent and pervasive affective-cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior. Vigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one’s work, and persistence even in the face of difficulties. Dedication refers to being strongly involved in one's work and experiencing a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. Absorption, is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work’ Accordingly, vigor and dedication are considered direct opposites of exhaustion and cynicism, respectively. The continuum that is spanned by vigor and exhaustion has been labeled energy or activation, whereas the continuum that is spanned by dedication and cynicism has been labeled identification (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2001). Hence, work engagement is characterized by a high level of energy and strong identification with one's work. Burnout, on the other hand, is characterized by the opposite: a low level of energy combined with poor identification with one's work.

As can be seen from the definition above, the direct opposite of the third aspect of burnout – professional inefficacy – is not included in the engagement concept. There are two reasons for this. First, there is accumulating empirical evidence that exhaustion and cynicism constitute the core of burnout, whereas lack of professional efficacy seems to play a less prominent role (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001; Shirom, 2002). Second, it appeared from interviews and discussions with employees and supervisors that rather than by efficacy, engagement is particularly characterized by being immersed and happily engrossed in one's work – a state that we have called absorption. Accordingly, absorption is a distinct aspect of work engagement that is not considered to be the opposite of professional inefficacy. Based on the pervious definition, a self-report questionnaire – called the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) – has been developed that includes the three constituting aspects of work engagement: vigor, dedication, and absorption.

The development of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)

Originally, the UWES included 24 items of which the vigor-items (9) and the dedication-items (8) for a large part consisted of positively rephrased MBI-items. For instance, ’’When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work’’ (vigor) versus ’’I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job’’ (exhaustion) and ’’I am enthusiastic about my job’’ (dedication) versus ’’I have become less enthusiastic about my work’’ (cynicism). These reformulated MBI-items were supplemented by original vigor and dedication items, as well as with new absorption items to constitute the UWES-24 . After psychometric evaluation in two different samples of employees and students, 7 items appeared to be unsound and were therefore eliminated so that 17 items remained: 6 vigor items, 5 dedication items, and 6 absorption items (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá & Bakker, 2002a). The resulting 17-item version of the UWES is included in the Appendix. Subsequent psychometric analyses uncovered two other weak items (AB06 en VI06), so that in some studies also a 15-item version of the UWES has been used (e.g., Demerouti, Bakker, Janssen & Schaufeli, 2001). The databases that are analyzed for this test-manual include the UWES-15 as well as the UWES-17 (see 4.1 and 5.1).

The results from psychometric analyses with the UWES can be summarized as follows:

Factorial validity. Confirmatory factor analyses show that the hypothesized three-factor structure of the UWES is superior to the one-factor model and fits well to the data of various samples from The Netherlands, Spain and Portugal (Salanova, Schaufeli, Llorens, Pieró & Grau, 2000; Schaufeli et al., 2002a; Schaufeli, Martínez, Marques-Pinto, Salanova & Bakker, 2002b; Schaufeli, Taris & Van Rhenen, 2003). However, there is one exception, using explorative factor analyses Sonnentag (2003) found did not find a clear three-factor structure and decided to use the total-score on the UWES as a measure for work engagement.

Inter-correlations. Although, according to confirmatory factor analyses the UWES seems to have a three-dimensional structure, these three dimensions are closely related. Correlations between the three scales usually exceed .65 (e.g., Demerouti et al., 2001; Salanova et al., 2000; Schaufeli et al., 2002a, 2002b), whereas correlations between the latent variables range from about .80 to about .90 (Salanova et al., 2000; Schaufeli et al., 2002a, 2002b).

Cross-national invariance. The factor structure of the slightly adapted student version of the UWES (see 4.9) is largely invariant across samples from Spain, The Netherlands and Portugal (Schaufeli et al., 2002b). Detailed analyses showed that the loadings of maximum three items differed significantly between the samples of the three countries.

Internal consistency. The internal consistency of the three scales of the UWES is good. That is, in all cases values of Cronbach's  are equal to or exceed the critical value of .70 (Nunnaly & Bernstein, 1984). Usually values of Cronbach's  for the scales range between .80 and .90 (Salanova et al., 2000; Salanova, Grau, Llorens & Schaufeli, 2001; Demerouti et al., 2001; Montgomery, Peeters, Schaufeli & Den Ouden, 2003; Salanova, Bresó & Schaufeli, 2003a; Schaufeli, Taris & Van Rhenen, 2003; Salanova, Carrero, Pinazo & Schaufeli, 2003b; Schaufeli & Bakker, in press).

Stability. Scores on the UWES are relatively stable across time. Two, year stability coefficients for vigor, dedication and absorption are .30, .36, and .46, respectively (Bakker, Euwema, & Van Dierendonk, 2003).

In sum: these psychometric results confirm the factorial validity of the UWES – as expected, the UWES consists of three scales that are highly correlated. Besides, this pattern of relationships is observed among samples from different countries, which confirms the cross-national validity of the three-factor solution. Taken together this means that engagement is a construct that consists of three closely related aspects that are measured by three internally consistent scales.

The psychometric quality of the UWES

Below, results on the psychometric quality of the UWES are reported using a Dutch language database, consisting of Dutch and Flemish studies among different occupational groups, as well as an international database that includes data from various countries. First, the psychometric analyses of the Dutch language database are presented, followed by that of the international database. A similar structure is used in both cases: first the composition of the database is discussed and next the results are presented of analyses regarding the distribution characteristics of the items, the internal consistencies of the subscales, the factor structure of the UWES, the relationships with burnout, age, and gender, and the differences between professional groups (in the Dutch database) and between countries (in the international database). Finally, a short version of the UWES is presented, as well as a slightly adapted version for students.

Internal consistency

Table 3 shows the internal consistencies (Cronbach's ) of the scales of the various versions of the UWES (for the short UWES-9, see 4.7). The -values have been computed for the total database as well as for the individual studies. Table 3 displays the range of  as well as its median (Md). The latter is based on 15 studies (N = 9.679) as far as the UWES-9 and UWES-15 is concerned, whereas the median is based on the remaining 11 studies (N = 2.313) as far as the UWES-17 is concerned. As can be seen from Table 3, the internal consistencies are quite good for the short version as well as for both longer versions. Moreover, internal consistencies are well above the criterion of .60 that is recommended for newly developed measurement instruments (Nunnaly & Bernstein, 1994).

Table 3: Cronbach's of the UWES-scales

UWES-9 (N = 9,679)

UWES-15 (N = 9,679)

UWES-17 (N =2,313)

Total

Md

Range

Total

Md

Range

Total

Md

Range

Vigor

.84

.84

.75 – .91

.86

.86

.81 – .90

.83

.86

.81 –.90

Dedication*

.89

.89

.83 – .93

.92

.91

.88 – .95

.92

.92

.88 –.95

Absorption

.79

.79

.70 – .84

.82

.81

.75 – .87

.82

.80

.70 –.88

Note. * The dedication scales of the UWES-15 and the UWES-17 are identical.

Work & Well-being Survey

 

1. At my work‚ I feel bursting with energy* (VI1)
2. I find the work that I do full of meaning and purpose (DE1)
3. Time flies when I'm working (AB1)
4. At my job‚ I feel strong and vigorous (VI2)*
5. I am enthusiastic about my job (DE2)*
6. When I am working‚ I forget everything else around me (AB2)
7. My job inspires me (DE3)*
8. When I get up in the morning‚ I feel like going to work (VI3)*
9. I feel happy when I am working intensely (AB3)*
10. I am proud on the work that I do (DE4)*
11. I am immersed in my work (AB4)*
12. I can continue working for very long periods at a time (VI4)
13. To me‚ my job is challenging (DE5)
14. I get carried away when I’m working (AB5)*
15. At my job‚ I am very resilient‚ mentally (VI5)
16. It is difficult to detach myself from my job (AB6)
17. At my work I always persevere‚ even when things do not go well (VI6)
* Shortened version (UWES-9); VI= vigor; DE = dedication; AB = absorption
0= Never‚ 1= Almost never (A few times a year or less)‚ 2= Rarely (Once a month or less)‚ 3= Sometimes (A few times a month)‚ 4=Often (Once a week)‚ 5=Very often (A few times a week)‚ 6= Always (Every day)

other languages

Werkbelevingslijst (UBES) Dutch version

  1. Op mijn werk bruis ik van energie. (VI01)*
  2. Ik vind het werk dat ik doe nuttig en zinvol. (DE01)
  3. Als ik aan het werk ben, dan vliegt de tijd voorbij. (AB01)
  4. Als ik werk voel ik me fit en sterk. (VI02)
  5. * Ik ben enthousiast over mijn baan. (DE02)*
  6. Als ik werk vergeet ik alle andere dingen om me heen. (AB02)
  7. Mijn werk inspireert mij. (DE03)*
  8. Als ik ‘s morgens opsta heb ik zin om aan het werk te gaan (VI03)
  9. * Wanneer ik heel intensief aan het werk ben, voel ik mij gelukkig. (AB03)
  10. * Ik ben trots op het werk dat ik doe. (DE04)*
  11. Ik ga helemaal op in mijn werk. (AB04)*
  12. Als ik aan het werk ben, dan kan ik heel lang doorgaan. (VI04)
  13. Mijn werk is voor mij een uitdaging. (DE05)
  14. Mijn werk brengt mij in vervoering. (AB05)*
  15. Op mijn werk beschik ik over een grote mentale (geestelijke) veerkracht. (VI05)
  16. Ik kan me moeilijk van mijn werk losmaken. (AB06)
  17. Op mijn werk zet ik altijd door, ook als het tegenzit. (VI06)

Studiebelevingslijst (UBES-S) Dutch student version

  1. Als ik studeer bruis ik van de energie. (VI01)*
  2. Ik vind mijn studie nuttig en zinvol. (DE01)*
  3. Wanneer ik studeer vliegt de tijd voorbij. (AB01)*
  4. Ik voel mij sterk en fit wanneer ik studeer en colleges volg. (VI02)*
  5. Ik ben enthousiast over de inhoud van mijn studie. (DE02)
  6. Ik vergeet alles om mij heen als ik verdiept ben in mijn studie. (AB02)*
  7. Mijn studie inspireert mij. (DE03)*
  8. Als ik ’s morgens opsta heb ik zin om naar college te gaan of te gaan studeren (VI03)*
  9. Wanneer ik heel intensief aan het studeren ben, voel ik me gelukkig. (AB03)
  10. Ik ben er trots op dat ik deze studie doe. (DE04)*
  11. Ik ga helemaal op in mijn studie. (AB04)*
  12. Als ik aan het studeren ben kan ik heel lang doorgaan. (VI04)
  13. Ik vind mijn studie uitdagend. (DE05)
  14. Ik laat me meeslepen door de stof wanneer ik studeer. (AB05)
  15. Ik beschik over een grote mentale veerkracht voor zover het mijn studie betreft. (VI05)
  16. Het is voor mij moeilijk afstand te nemen van mijn studie. (AB06)
  17. Ik ga door met studeren, zelfs als het tegenzit. (VI06)

Arbeitsengagement German version

  1. Bei meiner Arbeit bin ich voll überschäumender Energie (VI1)
  2. * Meine Arbeit ist nützlich und sinnvoll (HI1)
  3. Während ich arbeite, vergeht die Zeit wie im Fluge (VA1)
  4. Beim Arbeiten fühle ich mich fit und tatkräftig (VI2)
  5. * Ich bin von meiner Arbeit begeistert (HI2)*
  6. Während ich arbeite, vergesse ich alles um mich herum. (VA2)
  7. Meine Arbeit inspiriert mich (HI3)*
  8. Wenn ich morgens aufstehe, freue ich mich auf meine Arbeit (VI3)
  9. * Ich fühle mich glücklich, wenn ich intensiv arbeite (VA3)*
  10. Ich bin stolz auf meine Arbeit (HI4)*
  11. Ich gehe völlig in meiner Arbeit auf (VA4)*
  12. Wenn ich arbeite, kann ich für sehr lange Zeit dran bleiben (VI4)
  13. Meine Arbeit ist eine Herausforderung für mich (HI5)
  14. Meine Arbeit reißt mich mit (VA5)*
  15. Bei meiner Arbeit bin ich geistig sehr widerstandsfähig (VI5)
  16. Ich kann mich nur schwer von meiner Arbeit lösen (VA6)
  17. Bei meiner Arbeit halte ich immer durch, auch wenn es mal nicht so gut läuft (VI6)

Echelle d’engagement au travail (UWES) French version

  1. Je déborde d'énergie pour mon travail (VI1)*
  2. Je trouve que mon travail a un sens et une utilité (DE1)
  3. Le temps passe à allure folle lorsque je travaille (AB1)
  4. Je me sens fort(e) et vigoureux(se) pour faire ce métier (VI2)*
  5. Je suis passionné(e) par mon travail (DE2)*
  6. Lorsque je travaille, j'oublie tout autour de moi (AB2)
  7. Faire ce métier est stimulant (DE3)*
  8. Lorsque je me lève le matin, j'ai envie d'aller travailler (VI3)*
  9. Je suis content(e) lorsque je suis captivé(e) par mon activité (AB3)*
  10. Je suis fier(e) du travail que je fais (DE4)*
  11. Je suis complètement absorbé(e) par mon travail (AB4)
  12. * J'arrive à travailler longtemps sans m'arrêter (VI4)
  13. Selon moi, mon travail est un véritable challenge (DE5)
  14. Je suis littéralement plongé(e) dans mon travail (AB5)
  15. * Je ne me laisse pas abattre dans mon travail (VI5)
  16. Il m'est très difficile de me détacher de mon travail (AB6)
  17. Je persévère toujours dans mon travail, même quand les choses ne vont pas bien (VI6)

Skjema på jobb og velvære (UWES) Norwegian version

  1. Jeg er full av energi i arbeidet mitt* (VI1)
  2. Jeg synes at arbeidet mitt har både mål og mening (DE1)
  3. Tiden bare flyr når jeg arbeider (AB1)
  4. Jeg føler meg sterk og energisk på jobben (VI2)
  5. * Jeg er entusiastisk i jobben min (DE2)*
  6. Når jeg arbeider glemmer jeg alt annet rundt meg (AB2)
  7. Jeg blir inspirert av jobben min (DE3)*
  8. Når jeg står opp om morgenen ser jeg frem til å gå på jobben (VI3)
  9. * Jeg føler meg glad når jeg er fordypet i arbeidet mitt (AB3)*
  10. Jeg er stolt av det arbeidet jeg gjør (DE4)
  11. * Jeg er oppslukt av arbeidet mitt (AB4)*
  12. På jobben kan jeg holde på med å arbeide i lange perioder av gangen (VI4)
  13. For meg er jobben en utfordring (DE5)
  14. Jeg blir fullstendig revet med av arbeidet mitt (AB5)
  15. * Jeg føler meg psykisk sterk på jobben (VI5)
  16. Det er vanskelig for meg å løsrive meg fra jobben (AB6)
  17. Jeg er alltid utholdende på jobb, selv når ting ikke går bra (VI6)

Engagemang (UWES) Swedish version

  1. Jag spritter av energi på jobbet * (VI1)
  2. Jag tycker att mitt jobb har både mening och mål (DE1)
  3. Tiden flyger iväg när jag arbetar (AB1)
  4. På jobbet känner jag mig stark och energisk (VI2)
  5. * Jag känner mig entusiastisk inför mitt jobb (DE2)*
  6. När jag arbetar glömmer jag allt annat runt omkring mig (AB2)
  7. Mitt arbete inspirerar mig (DE3)*
  8. När jag stiger upp på morgonen så känner jag för att gå till jobbet (VI3)
  9. * Jag känner mig lycklig när jag går upp i mitt arbete (AB3)*
  10. Jag är stolt över det arbete jag utför (DE4)
  11. * Jag rycks med när jag arbetar (AB4)*
  12. Jag kan arbeta i väldigt långa perioder åt gången (VI4)
  13. För mig är jobbet en utmaning (DE5)
  14. Jag är uppslukad av mitt arbete (AB5)*
  15. Jag kommer alltid igen efter motgångar på jobbet (VI5)
  16. Jag har svårt att släppa tankarna på mitt jobb (AB6)
  17. Även om saker på jobbet inte går så bra så ger jag aldrig upp (VI6)

Työn imu (UWES) Finnish version

  1. Tunnen olevani täynnä energiaa, kun teen työtäni (VI1)
  2. Työni on mielestäni merkityksellistä ja sillä on selvä tarkoitus (DE1)
  3. Työskennellessäni unohdan ajan kulun (A12)
  4. Tunnen itseni vahvaksi ja tarmokkaaksi työssäni (VI2)
  5. * Olen innostunut työstäni (DE2)*
  6. Kun työskentelen, unohdan kaiken muun ympärilläni (AB2)
  7. Työni inspiroi minua (DE3)*
  8. Aamulla herättyäni minusta tuntuu hyvältä lähteä töihin (VI3)*
  9. Tunnen tyydytystä, kun olen syventynyt työhöni (AB3)
  10. * Olen ylpeä työstäni (DE4)*
  11. 11. Olen täysin uppoutunut työhöni (AB4)*
  12. Jaksan työskennellä hyvinkin pitkiä aikoja kerrallaan (VI4)
  13. Minulle työni on haastavaa (DE5)
  14. Kun työskentelen, työ vie minut mukanaan (AB5)*
  15. Olen hyvin sinnikäs työssäni (VI5)
  16. Minun on vaikea irrottautua työstäni, kun olen siihen uppoutunut (AB6)
  17. Jatkan hellittämättä työssäni silloinkin, kun asiat eivät suju niin hyvin (VI6)

Encuesta de Bienestar y Trabajo (UWES) Spanish Version

  1. En mi trabajo me siento lleno de energía (VI1)*
  2. Mi trabajo está lleno de significado y propósito (DE1)
  3. El tiempo vuela cuando estoy trabajando (AB1)
  4. Soy fuerte y vigoroso en mi trabajo (VI2)
  5. * Estoy entusiasmado con mi trabajo (DE2)*
  6. Cuando estoy trabajando olvido todo lo que pasa alrededor de mí (AB2)
  7. Mi trabajo me inspira (DE3)*
  8. Cuando me levanto por las mañanas tengo ganas de ir a trabajar (VI3)
  9. * Soy feliz cuando estoy absorto en mi trabajo (AB3)*
  10. Estoy orgulloso del trabajo que hago (DE4)
  11. * Estoy inmerso en mi trabajo (AB4)*
  12. Puedo continuar trabajando durante largos períodos de tiempo (VI4)
  13. Mi trabajo es retador (DE5)
  14. Me “dejo llevar” por mi trabajo (AB5)
  15. * Soy muy persistente en mi trabajo (VI5)
  16. Me es difícil ‘desconectarme’ de mi trabajo (AB6)
  17. Incluso cuando las cosas no van bien, continuo trabajando (VI6)

Encuesta de Bienestar y in Contexto Académico (UWES-S) Spanish student version

  1. Mis tareas como estudiante me hacen sentir lleno de energía (VI1)
  2. * Creo que mi carrera tiene significado (DE1)
  3. El tiempo “pasa volando” cuando realizo mis tareas como estudiante (AB1)
  4. Me siento fuerte y vigoroso cuando estoy estudiando o voy a las clases (VI2)
  5. * Estoy entusiasmado con mi carrera (DE2)*
  6. Olvido todo lo que pasa alrededor de mí cuando estoy abstraído con mis estudios (AB2)
  7. Mis estudios me inspiran cosas nuevas (DE3)*
  8. Cuando me levanto por la mañana me apetece ir a clase o estudiar (VI3)
  9. * Soy feliz cuando estoy haciendo tareas relacionadas con mis estudios (AB3)
  10. * Estoy orgulloso de hacer esta carrera (DE4)*
  11. Estoy inmerso en mis estudios (AB4)*
  12. Puedo seguir estudiando durante largos períodos de tiempo (VI4)
  13. Mi carrera es retadora para mí (DE5)
  14. Me “dejo llevar” cuando realizo mis tareas como estudiante (AB5)
  15. * Soy muy “resistente” para afrontar mis tareas como estudiante (VI5)
  16. Es difícil para mí separarme de mis estudios (AB6)
  17. En mis tareas como estudiante no paro incluso si no me encuentro bien (VI6)

Εργασία και Ευηµερία (UWES) Greek Version

  1. Στη δουλειά µου αισθάνοµαι να πληµµυρίζω από ενεργητικότητα. (VI1)*
  2. H εργασία που κάνω είναι χρήσιµη και γεµάτη νόηµα. (DE1)
  3. Ο χρόνος κυλάει γρήγορα όταν εργάζοµαι. (AB1)
  4. Νιώθω γεµάτος/η ζωντάνια και δύναµη όταν εργάζοµαι. (VI2)*
  5. Είµαι ενθουσιασµένος/η µε τη δουλειά µου. (DE2)
  6. Όταν εργάζοµαι ξεχνώ τα πάντα γύρω µου. (AB2)
  7. Η εργασία µου µε εµπνέει. (DE3)*
  8. Όταν σηκώνοµαι το πρωί έχω διάθεση να πάω στη δουλειά µου. (VI3)
  9. * Νιώθω ευτυχισµένος/η όταν εργάζοµαι µε εντατικούς ρυθµούς. (AB3)
  10. * Νιώθω υπερήφανος/η για τη δουλειά που κάνω. (DE4)*
  11. Είµαι τελείως απορροφηµένος/η από την εργασία µου. (AB4)*
  12. Όταν εργάζοµαι είµαι ικανός να συνεχίσω τη δουλειά µου για πολλή ώρα. (VI4)
  13. Η δουλειά µου αποτελεί πρόκληση για µένα. (DE5)
  14. Η δουλειά µου µε συναρπάζει. (AB5)*
  15. Στην δουλειά µου έχω µεγάλη πνευµατική αντοχή. (VI5)
  16. Μου είναι δύσκολο να αποσπάσω τον εαυτό µου από τη δουλειά µου (AB6)
  17. ∆είχνω πάντοτε επιµονή στη δουλειά µου, ακόµα κι όταν τα πράγµατα δεν πάνε καλά. (VI6)

Опросник (UWES) Russian version

  1. Во время работы меня переполняет энергия*
  2. Моя работа целенаправленна и осмысленна
  3. Когда я работаю, время пролетает незаметно
  4. Во время работы я испытываю прилив сил и энергии*
  5. Я полон энтузиазма в отношении своей работы*
  6. Во время работы я забываю обо всем окружающем
  7. Моя работа вдохновляет меня*
  8. Проснувшись утром, я радуюсь тому, что пойду на работу*
  9. Я счастлив, когда интенсивно работаю*
  10. Я горжусь своей работой*
  11. Я ухожу в работу с головой*
  12. Могу работать в течение длительного времени без перерывов
  13. Работа ставит передо мной сложные и интересные задачи
  14. Я позволяю работе «уносить» меня*
  15. В работе я очень настойчив и не отвлекаюсь на постороннее
  16. Мне трудно отложить работу в сторону
  17. Я продолжаю работать даже тогда, когда дела идут плохо

Questionário do bem estar e no contexto academic (UWES-S) Portuguese student version

  1. As minhas tarefas como aluno fazem-me sentir cheio(a) de energia (VI1)
  2. * Creio que o meu curso tem significado (DE1)
  3. O tempo passa a voar quando estou a realizar as minhas tarefas como aluno (AB1)
  4. Sinto-me com força e energia quando estou a estudar ou vou às aulas (VI2)
  5. * Estou entusiasmado(a) com o meu curso (DE2)*
  6. Esqueço tudo o que se passa à minha roda quando estou concentrado(a) nos meus estudos (AB2)
  7. Os meus estudos inspiram-me coisas novas (DE3)*
  8. Quando me levanto de manhã apetece-me ir para as aulas ou estudar (VI3)*
  9. Sinto-me feliz quando estou a fazer tarefas relacionadas com os meus estudos (AB3)
  10. * Estou orgulhoso(a) de fazer este curso (DE4)*
  11. Estou imerso nos meus estudos (AB4)*
  12. As minhas tarefas como aluno não me cansam (VI4)
  13. O meu curso é desafiante para mim (DE5)
  14. "Deixo-me ir" quando realizo as minhas tarefas como aluno (AB5)*
  15. Sou uma pessoa com força para enfrentar as minhas tarefas como aluno (VI5)
  16. Sinto-me envolvido(a) no meu curso (AB6)
  17. Em minhas tarefas como o páro da pupila não, exatamente isso não me sente bem (VI6)

 

Schaufeli‚ W.B.‚ Salanova‚ M.‚ Gonzalez-Roma‚ V.‚ & Bakker‚ A.A. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of happiness Studies 3: 71-92.

Schaufeli‚ W.‚ & Bakker‚ A. (2003). UWES Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Preliminary Manual [Version 1‚ November 2003]. Utrecht: Utrecht University‚ Occupational Health Psychology Unit. Retrieved from http://www.schaufeli.com

Schaufeli‚ Wilmar B.‚ Bakker‚ Arnold B.‚ Salanova‚ Marisa. (2006). The Measurement of Work Engagement With a Short Questionnaire A Cross-National Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement August; 66(4): 701-716

Schaufeli‚ W. B.‚ & Bakker‚ A. B. (2010). Defining and measuring work engagement: Bringing clarity to the concept. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter(Eds.)‚ Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 10–24). New York: Psychology Press.

Schaufeli‚ W. B.‚ & Salanova‚ M. (2011). Work engagement: On how to better catch a slippery concept. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology‚ 20‚ 39–46.

Schaufeli‚ W.B.‚ Salanova‚ M.‚ Gonzalez-Roma‚ V.‚ & Bakker‚ A.B. (2002). The  measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Gideon P. de Bruin.‚ Carin Hill.‚ Carolina M. Henn.‚ Klaus-Peter Muller. (2013). Dimensionality of the UWES-17: An item response modelling analysis. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 39(2)