Leader effectiveness was measured with ten items from Trent (2004). Respondents were asked to indicate which response best reflected their own team leader for each of the following items:
- secures individual member involvement;
- manages internal team conflict;
- maintains team focus and direction;
- secures resources as required;
- prevents team domination by a member;
- deals with obstacles confronting the team;
- coordinates multiple tasks and manages the status of assignments;
- helps members and the team establish specific goals;
- clarifies and/or define each member's role; and
- provides performance feedback to the team and/or individual members.
The scale used a seven-point Likert-type response format with anchors 1 = not applicable and 7 = very applicable on leader's behavior (alpha = 0.95).