Russell, J. J. (1992). Theory into practice: The realities of shared decision making. EdD dissertation, Fordham University.
Comments: The 50-item Teacher Involvement and Participation Scale (TIPS) 2 measures eight areas of teacher involvement in decision making. TIPS can be used to determine areas for training. In addition, the responses of teachers and administrators can be compared. Sample items from each of the eight areas are provided.
Sample: The five schools in the sample were selected based upon their level of shared decision making. Two schools were identified as having a high level of shared decision making; two schools were identified as having a low level of shared decision making; and one school was identified as having a moderate level of shared decision making.
Reliability: Cronbach alpha, Spearman-Brown, and Guttman split-half techniques were used with 109 teachers from the five pilot schools to assess reliability. The alpha coefficient for the entire TIPS 2 was 0.96. The alpha coefficients ranged from 0.71 (goals/vision/mission) to 0.92 (staffing).
Validity: A thorough review of the literature on shared decision making focused on eight areas. These eight areas formed the foundation for the TIPS. Content validity was established by using a panel of experts to match statements with subscales. In order for a statement to be included, it needed at least 80 percent agreement. Evidence of discriminant validity and construct validity were provided.
Subscales: The eight subscales/dimensions of the decision-making process that were identified were: nine items on goals/vision/mission (1–9); five items on standards (10–14); 10 items on curriculum and instruction (15–24); six items on budget (25–30); four items on staffing (31–34); four items on operations (35–38); seven items on facilitating procedures/structures (39–45); and five items on staff development (46–50).
Data Analysis: Scale means and standard deviations are presented as well as the results of an analysis of variance. In addition, an analysis was conducted with each of the five schools in the sample.
Conley, S. C., and Bachrach, S. B. (1990). From school-site management to participatory school-site management. Phi Delta Kap- pan 71:539–44.
David, J. L. (1989). Synthesis of research on school-based management. Educational Leadership 46:45–47, 50–53.
Knobloch, S. F. (2007). Teacher participation in decision making and collective efficacy. EdD dissertation, University of Virginia. Russell, J. J., et al. (1992). How do you measure shared decision making? Educational Leadership 50:39–40.
Sirotnik, K., and Clark, R. (1988). School centered decision making and renewal. Phi Delta Kappan 69:660–64.
Teacher Involvement and Participation Scale
1. The school’s goals are consistent with my vision of this school.
2. Teachers contribute to the development of a plan to meet the school’s goals.
3. Teachers play an active role in evaluating school goals.
4. Teachers contribute to the standards set for discipline in the school.
5. Teachers set standards for their student’s work.
6. The school staff assumes responsibility for student performance.
7. Teachers participate in curricula development.
8. Teachers determine grouping for the purpose of instruction.
9. Teachers monitor the effectiveness of curricula.
10. Teachers contribute to the development of the school budget.
11. Teachers have a voice in the recruiting and selecting of teachers.
12. Teachers take part in staffing decisions including such tradeoffs as using instructional aids, or hiring vice-principals, counselors, and other special area staff.
13. Teachers have a voice in the recruiting and selecting of administrators.
14. Teachers play a part in determining how the school building is utilized.
15. Teachers are involved in the development of plans to improve building facilities.
16. Teachers play a role in establishing building maintenance priorities.
17. Teachers have access to the information they need to make school-wide decisions.
18. Teachers are represented on a council or committee that makes school-wide decisions.
19. Decisions are not made until everyone can accept the proposal to some extent.
20. Teachers have access to current research on effective programs and practices.
21. Teachers have opportunities to share their expert knowledge.
22. Teachers have access to special training when necessary.
Scoring: Almost Never = 1; Seldom = 2; Sometimes = 3; Frequently = 4; and Almost Always = 5.