Self-Construal Scale (SCS)

1. I have respect for the authority figures with whom I interact.
2. It is important for me to maintain harmony within my group.
3. My happiness depends on the happiness of those around me.
4. I would offer my seat in a bus to my professor (or my boss).
5. I respect people who are modest about themselves.
6. I will sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of the group I am in.
7. My relationships . . . are more important than my own accomplishments.
8. I should [consider] my parents’ advice when making education/career plans.
9. It is important to me to respect decisions made by the group.
10. I will stay in a group if they need me‚ even when I am not happy with the group.
11. If my brother or sister fails‚ I feel responsible.
12. Even when I strongly disagree with group members‚ I avoid an argument
13. I’d rather say “no” directly than risk being misunderstood.
14. Speaking up during a class (or a meeting) is not a problem for me.
15. ha‎ving a lively imagination is important to me.
16. I am comfortable with being singled out for praise or rewards.
17. I act the same way at home that I do at school.
18. Being able to take care of myself is a primary concern for me.
19. I act the same way no matter who I am with.
20. I feel comfortable using someone’s first name soon after I meet them.
21. I prefer to be direct and forthright when dealing with people I’ve just met.
22. I enjoy being unique and different from others in many respects.
23. My personal identity‚ independent of others‚ is very important to me.
24. I value being in good health above everything.
Self-Construal Scale (Reported by Tom‚ 2006)
1.    It is important for me to maintain harmony within my group.
2.    I value being in good health above everything else.
3.    My personal identity‚ independent of others‚ is very important to me.
4.    It is important to me to respect decisions made by the group.
5.    I’d rather say “No” directly‚ than risk being misunderstood.
6.    I would offer my seat in a bus to my professor.
7.    Even when I strongly disagree with group members‚ I avoid an argument.
8.    I should take into consideration my parents’ advice when making education/career plans.
9.    ha‎ving a lively imagination is important to me.
10.I often have the feeling that my relationships with others are more important than my own accomplishments.
11.I have respect for the authority figures with whom I interact.
12.I enjoy being unique and different from others in many respects.
13.Being able to take care of myself is a primary concern for me.
14.If my brother or sister fails‚ I feel responsible.
15.I feel comfortable using someone’s first name soon after I meet them‚ even if they are much older than I am.
16.I will stay in a group if they need me‚ even when I am not happy with the group.
17.My happiness depends on the happiness of those around me.
18.I prefer to be direct and forthright when dealing with people I’ve just met.
19.I will sacrifice my self-interests for the benefit of the group I am in.
20.I am the same person at home that I am at school.
21.I respect people who are modest about themselves.
22.I act the same way no matter who I am with.
23.I am comfortable with being singled out for praise or rewards.
24.Speaking up during class is not a problem for me.
 
SINGELIS SELF-CONSTRUAL SCALE
1. I enjoy being unique and different from others in many respects.
2. I can talk openly with a person who I meet for the first time‚ even when this person is much older than I am.
3. Even when I strongly disagree with group members‚ I avoid an argument.
4. I have respect for the authority figures with whom I interact.
5. I do my own thing‚ regardless of what others think.
6. I respect people who are modest about themselves.
7. I feel it is important for me to act as an independent person.
8. I will sacrifice my self interest for the benefit of the group I am in.
9. I’d rather say “No” directly‚ than risk being misunderstood.
10. ha‎ving a lively imagination is important to me.
11. I should take into consideration my parents’ advice when making education/career plans.
12. I feel my fate is intertwined with the fate of those around me.
13. I prefer to be direct and forthright when dealing with people I’ve just met.
14. I feel good when I cooperate with others.
15. I am comfortable with being singled out for praise or rewards.
16. If my brother or sister fails‚ I feel responsible.
17. I often have the feeling that my relationships with others are more important than my own accomplishments.
18. Speaking up during a class (or a meeting) is not a problem for me.
19. I would offer my seat in a bus to my professor (or my boss).
20. I act the same way no matter who I am with.
21. My happiness depends on the happiness of those around me.
22. I value being in good health above everything.
23. I will stay in a group if they need me‚ even when I am not happy with the group.
24. I try to do what is best for me‚ regardless of how that might affect others.
25. Being able to take care of myself is a primary concern for me.
26. It is important to me to respect decisions made by the group.
27. My personal identity‚ independent of others‚ is very important to me.
28. It is important for me to maintain harmony within my group.
29. I act the same way at home that I do at school (or work).
30. I usually go along with what others want to do‚ even when I would rather do something different.
 
 
1=strongly disagree‚ 2=moderately disagree‚ 3=somewhat disagree‚ 4=neutral‚ 5=somewhat agree‚ 6=moderately agree‚ 7=strongly agree
For 24 items:
Independent items: 2‚ 9‚ 10‚ 13‚ 15‚ 18‚ 20‚ 22‚ 25‚ 27‚ and 29
Interdependent items: 3‚ 4‚ 6‚ 8‚ 11‚ 16‚ 17‚ 19‚ 21‚ 23‚ 26‚ and 28
For 30 items
Independent items: 1‚ 2‚ 5‚ 7‚ 9‚ 10‚ 13‚ 15‚ 18‚ 20‚ 22‚ 24‚ 25‚ 27‚ 29
Interdependent items: 3‚ 4‚ 6‚ 8‚ 11‚ 12‚ 14‚ 16‚ 17‚ 19‚ 21‚ 23‚ 26‚ 28‚ 30
Independence minus Interdependence (IND minusINT)
Independent subscale – interdependent subscale
 
This instrument can be found on of “The Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD4) Moderates Cultural Difference in Independent versus Interdependent Social Orientation.” Available online at: download
 
Note from Dr.Ted Singelis. Please consider this note if you use this scale.
Please feel free to use the SCS in your research. I ask only that you send me a  copy of your findings for my archives.
If you translate the scale into another language‚ I would appreciate a copy of the translation. It may be useful to contact me before the translation begins because I may be able to facilitate the process.
Ted Singelis‚ Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology
California State University‚ Chico

Singelis‚ T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin‚ 20‚ 580-591.

Singelis‚ T. M.‚ & Brown‚ W. P. (1995). Culture‚ self‚ and collectivist communication: Linking culture to individual behavior. Human Communication Research‚ 21‚ 354-389.

Singelis‚ T. M.‚ & Sharkey‚ W. F. (1995). Culture‚ self-construal‚ and embarrassability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology‚ 26‚ 622-644.

Singelis‚ T. M.‚ Triandis‚ H. C.‚ Bhawuk‚ D. S.‚ & Gelfand‚ M. (1995).Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: Atheoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research‚ 29‚240-275.

Kwan‚ V. S. Y.‚ Bond‚ M. H.‚ & Singelis‚ T. M. (1997). Pancultural explanations for life satisfaction: Adding relationship harmony to self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 73‚ 1038-1051.

Yamada‚ A-M.‚ & Singelis‚ T. M. (1999). Biculturalism and self-construal. International Journal of Intercultural Relations‚ 23‚ 697-709.

Singelis‚ T. M.‚ Bond‚ M. H.‚ Lai‚ S. Y.‚ & Sharkey‚ W. F. (1999). Unpackaging culture’s influence on self-esteem and embarrassability: The role of selfconstruals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology‚ 30‚ 315-341. For a review of many SCS studies and interesting commentary see:

Oyserman‚ D.U.‚ Coon‚ H.M.‚ & Kemmelmeier‚ M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin‚ 128(1)‚ 3-72.

Kitayama‚ S.‚ King‚ A.‚ Tompson‚ S.‚ Huff‚ S.‚ Yoon‚ C.‚ & Liberzon‚ I. (2014). The Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD4) Moderates Cultural Difference in Independent versus Interdependent Social Orientation. Psychological Science. 25(6)‚ 1169-1177

Tom. David M.‚ (2006). Effects of perceived discrimination: rejection and identification as two distinct pathways and their associated effects. Ohio State University. PhD dissertation.