School Principals’ Perceptions of Evaluation/Compensation Factors

Cunningham, R. A. (1993). Principals’ perceptions of evaluation/compensation factors. EdD dissertation, Temple University.


The SPPECF examines administrator preparation (nine items), personal traits (14 items), conceptual skills (11 items), position characteristics (17 items), administrative processes (11 items), and performance/results achieved (10 items) in terms of whether or not they should be included in a district’s evaluation/compensation program. Origi- nally, administrators were also asked to rank the importance of the items on a five-point scale. However, this was not done and may be considered as a recommendation for future research.


The sample consisted of 265 elementary and secondary principals from four counties outside of Philadelphia.


Test-retest reliability for the pilot study over a 10-day period is reported as number of response agreements at percentage ranges.


The original survey was critiqued by the author’s advisor. Then a panel of seven experts in the field examined the modified survey. The revised survey was pilot tested on 10 elementary and 10 secondary principals.

Data Analysis:

Frequency distributions, percentages, means, standard deviations, and standard or z scores are provided.


Herman, J. J. (1988). Evaluating administrators—assessing the competencies. NASSP Bulletin 72:5–9.

Langlois, D. E., and McAdams, R. P. (1992). Performance appraisal of school management. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing. Murphy, J., et al. (1986). The administrative control of principals in effective school districts: The supervision and evaluation functions. Urban Review 18:149–62.

Redfern, G. B. (1986). Techniques of evaluation of principals and assistant principals. NASSP Bulletin 70:66–74.

School Principals’ Perceptions of Evaluation/Compensation Factors

Part II: Administrative Competencies

1. Academic degrees held
2. In-service attended
3. In-service conducted
4. Professional growth
5. Certifications
6. Awards of distinction
7. Professional affiliations
8. Teaching experience
9. Administrative experience Personal Traits:
10. Creativity
11. Consistent attendance
12. Ability to use judgment
13. Sensitivity
14. Motivation
15. Personal interests
16. Health
17. Appearance
18. Enthusiasm
19. Intelligence
20. Energy level
21. Self-control
22. Initiative
23. Technical skills-methods and procedures

Conceptual Skills:
24. Ability to work with people
25. Problem solving
26. Judgment
27. Personal stress management
28. Imagination
29. Cooperativeness
30. Integrity
31. Loyalty
32. Time management
33. Ability to adopt to change
34. Ability to resolve conflict Position Characteristics:
35. Level of authority
36. Degree of responsibility
37. Span of control
38. Amount of fiscal responsibility
39. Enrollment
40. Degree of interpersonal conflicts
41. Number of assigned tasks
42. Frequency of public contracts
43. Nature and composition of student body and community
44. Position expectations
45. Consequence of errors
46. Scope and complexity of skills required for the position
47. Number of special services provided by the school
48. Adequacy of staff performances
49. Staff turnover rate
50. Length of work year
51. Amount of additional time required beyond the regular workday

Part III: Administrative Performance Indicators

Administrative Processes:
52. Develop and execute plans
53. Organize work
54. Coordinate service
55. Implement policies
56. Attends to administrative routine
57. Ability to motivate
58. Decision-making capabilities
59. Instructional leadership
60. Supervision of staff and students
61. Delegate responsibilities
62. Manage the administrative processes: finance, plant personnel, scheduling, etc.

Performance/Results Achieved:
63. Attainment of goals
64. Contributions to the total effort

65. Performance objectives set by principals
66. Observations of evidence to measure productivity
67. Duties performed
68. Behaviors executed
69. Performance in a position as compared to a set of prior achievements accomplished by other principals
70. Performance of duties that exceed responsibilities (merit or incentive plans)
71. Accomplishments as compared to average performances


For the first part of the item (Where should these factors be included in a district’s evaluation/compensation process) A = Evaluation; B = Compensation; C = Evaluation and Compensation; and D = None of the Above. For the second part of the item (To what degree do you recommend the use of these factors in a district’s evaluation/ compensation process) A = (1) Of No Importance; B = (2) Of Little Importance; C = (3) Moderately Important; D =

(4) Important; and E = (5) Critical.