School-Level Environment Questionnaire

Fisher, D. L., and Fraser, B. J. (1990). Validity and use of the School-Level Environment Questionnaire. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association. ERIC ED 318 757.

Comments: The 56-item School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ) measures teachers’ perceptions of the psychological environment of a school. The instrument has two answer forms—one measures the actual environment as seen by teachers, the other the preferred, or ideal, form.

Scale Construction: The scale development for this instrument was based on the Work Environment Scale (WES) designed by Moos. This WES has 10 scales. These scales fall into three basic dimensions: relationship dimension, personal development dimension, and system maintenance and system change dimension. The three board dimensions were used for the SLEQ and include seven subscales.

Sample: Three different teacher samples were used in the development of the questionnaire. The largest sample was 109 teachers from 10 elementary schools in Tasmania.

Reliability: Alpha coefficients as an estimate of each scale’s internal consistency were provided. These ranged from a low of 0.70 to 0.91.

Subscales: The design of the instrument into seven subscales include: student support, affiliation, professional interest, staff freedom, participatory decision making, innovation, and resource adequacy. More recently, an eighth subscale, work pressure, has been added. Each subscale is assessed by seven items.


Curry, C. C. (2009). Correlation of emotional intelligence of school leaders to perceptions of school climate as perceived by teachers. DEd dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Fee, C. E. (2008). Teachers’ and principals’ perceptions of leader behavior: A discrepancy study. EdD dissertation, University of Memphis.

Frederick, B. W. (2007). The effects of teachers’ perceptions of principals’ leadership style, school climate, and job satisfaction level and teacher attrition in Tennessee public skills. EdD dissertation, Union University.

Shead, L. M. (2010). An investigation of the relationship between teachers’ ratings of their principals’ leadership style and teachers’ job satisfaction in public education. PhD dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University.

Simon, T. C. (2010). The relationship between campus climate and the teaching of critical thinking skills in community college classrooms. PhD dissertation, Walden University.

Wenton, J. (2010). The impact of a principal’s sex on the climate of alternative schools. DEd dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

School-Level Environment Questionnaire

1. There are many disruptive, difficult students in the school.
2. I seldom receive encouragement from colleagues.
3. Teachers frequently discuss teaching methods and strategies with each other.
4. I am often supervised to ensure that I follow directions carefully.
5. Decisions about the running of the school are usually made by the principal or a small group of teachers.
6. It is very difficult to change anything in this school.
7. The school or department library includes an adequate selection of books and periodicals.
8. There is constant pressure to keep working.
9. Most students are helpful and cooperative to teachers.
10. I feel accepted by other teachers.
11. Teachers avoid talking with each other about teaching and learning.
12. I am not expected to conform to a particular teaching style.
13. I have to refer even small matters to a senior member of staff for a final answer.
14. Teachers are encouraged to be innovative in this school.
15. The supply of equipment and resources is inadequate.
16. Teachers have to work long hours to complete all their work.
17. Most students are pleasant and friendly to teachers.
18. I am ignored by other teachers.
19. Professional matters are seldom discussed during staff meetings.
20. It is considered very important that I closely follow syllabuses and lesson plans.
21. Action can usually be taken without gaining the approval of the subject department head or senior member of staff.
22. There is a great deal of resistance to proposals for curriculum change.
23. Video equipment, tapes, and films are readily available and accessible.
24. Teachers don’t have to work very hard in this school.
25. There are many noisy, badly behaved students.
26. I feel that I could rely on my colleagues for assistance if I should need it.
27. Many teachers attend inservice and other professional development courses.
28. There are few rules and regulations that I am expected to follow.
29. Teachers are frequently asked to participate in decisions concerning administrative policies and procedures.
30. Most teachers like the idea of change.
31. Adequate duplicating facilities and services are available to teachers.
32. There is no time for teachers to relax.
33. Students get along well with teachers.
34. My colleagues seldom take notice of my professional views and opinions.
35. Teachers show little interest in what is happening in other schools.
36. I am allowed to do almost as I please in the classroom.
37. I am encouraged to make decisions without reference to a senior member or staff.
38. New courses or curriculum materials are seldom implemented in the school.
39. Tape recorders and cassettes are seldom available when needed.
40. You can take it easy and still get the work done.
41. Most students are well mannered and respectful to the school staff.
42. I feel that I have many friends among my colleagues at this school.
43. Teachers are keen to learn from their colleagues.
44. My classes are expected to use prescribed textbooks and prescribed resource materials.
45. I must ask my subject department head or senior member of staff before I do most things.
46. There is much experimentation with different teaching approaches.
47. Facilities are inadequate for catering for a variety of classroom activities and learning groups of different sizes.
48. Seldom are there deadlines to be met.
49. Very strict discipline is needed to control many of the students.
50. I often feel lonely and left out of things in the staffroom.
51. Teachers show considerable interest in the professional activities of their colleagues.

52. I am expected to maintain very strict control in the classroom.
53. I have very little say in the running of the school.
54. New and different ideas are always being tried out in this school.
55. Projectors for filmstrips, transparencies, and films are usually available when needed.
56. It is hard to keep up with your workload.

Scoring: SD = Strongly Disagree; D = Disagree; N = Neither agree or disagree; A = Agree; SA = Strongly Agree.